Thursday, July 15, 2010

Iroquois Information

Iroquois Information

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Iroquois (pronounced /ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/), also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse",[1] are an indigenous people of North America. In the 16th century or earlier, the Iroquois came together in an association known today as the Iroquois League, or the "League of Peace and Power". The original Iroquois League was often known as the Five Nations, and comprised the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations. After the Tuscarora nation joined the League in the 18th century, the Iroquois have often been known as the Six Nations. The League is embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of fifty hereditary sachems.[2]

When Europeans first arrived in North America, the Iroquois were based in what is now the northeastern United States, primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York.[3] Presently, Iroquois live primarily in the United States and Canada.

The Iroquois League has often also been known as the Iroquois Confederacy, but some modern scholars now make a distinction between the League and the Confederacy.[4][5][6] According to this interpretation, the Iroquois League refers to the ceremonial and cultural institution embodied in the Grand Council, while the Iroquois Confederacy was the decentralized political and diplomatic entity that emerged in response to European colonization. The League still exists, but the Confederacy was shattered by the defeat of the British and allied Iroquois nations in the American Revolutionary War.[4]


The Iroquois also refers to themselves as the Haudenosaunee, which means "People of the Longhouse," or more accurately, "They Are Building a Long House." The term is said to have been introduced by The Great Peacemaker at the time of the formation of the League. It implies that the nations of the League should live together as families in the same longhouse. Symbolically, the Seneca were the guardians of the western door of the "tribal longhouse" and the Mohawk were the guardians of the eastern door. The Onondagas, whose homeland was in the center of Haudenosaunee territory, were keepers of the League's (both literal and figurative) central flame.

The name "Iroquois" was bestowed upon the Haudenosaunee by the French[7] and has several potential origins.

* A possible origin of the name Iroquois is reputed to come from a French version of irinakhoiw, a Huron (Wyandot) name – considered an insult – meaning "Black Snakes" or "real adders". The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron and the Algonquin, who allied with the French, because of their rivalry in the fur trade.
* The Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) often end their oratory with the phrase hiro kone;[8] hiro translates as "I have spoken", and kone can be translated several ways, the most common being "in joy", "in sorrow", or "in truth". Hiro kone to the French encountering the Haudenosaunee would sound like "Iroquois", pronounced [iʁokwe] in the French language of the time.
* Another version is however supported by French linguists such as Henriette Walter and anthropologists such as Dean Snow[9]. According to this account, "Iroquois" would derive from a Basque expression, Hilokoa, meaning the "killer people". This expression would have been applied to the Iroquois because they were the enemy of the local Algonquins, with whom the Basque fishermen were trading. However, because there is no "L" sound in the Algonquian languages of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence region, the name became "Hirokoa", which is the name the French understood when Algonquians referred to the same pidgin language as the one they used with the Basque. The French then transliterated the word according to their own phonetic rules, thus providing "Iroquois".

Formation of the League

The language spoken by members of the League is different from that of the other speakers of the languages of the same Iroquoian family. This suggests that while they had a common historical and cultural origin, they diverged over a long enough time that the languages became different. Archaeological evidence shows that the Iroquois lived in the Finger Lakes region from at least 1000AD.[10]

The Iroquois moved to the south in long wars of invasion in present-day Kentucky. According to one pre-contact theory, it was Iroquois who, by about 1200[citation needed], had pushed tribes of the Ohio River valley, such as the Quapaw (Akansea) and Ofo (Mosopelea) out of the region in a migration west of the Mississippi River. However, La Salle definitely listed the Mosopelea among the Ohio Valley peoples overthrown by the Iroquois in the early 1670s, during the later Beaver Wars.[11] By 1673, these Siouan groups had settled in their historically known territories of the Midwest, with some displacing other tribes to the west in their turn.[12] Iroquois also live in longhouses.

The Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact. Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between about 1450 and 1600.[13][14] A few claims have been made for an earlier date; one recent study has argued that the League was formed in 1142, based on a solar eclipse in that year that seems to fit one oral tradition.[15][16] Anthropologist Dean Snow argues that the archaeological evidence does not support a date earlier than 1450, and that recent claims for a much earlier date "may be for contemporary political purposes".[17]

According to tradition, the League was formed through the efforts of two men, Deganawida, sometimes known as the Great Peacemaker, and Hiawatha. They brought a message, known as the Great Law of Peace, to the squabbling nations. The nations who joined the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Mohawk. Once they ceased most of their infighting, the Iroquois rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America.

According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadodaho was the last to be converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Hiawatha. He became the spiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.[18] This event is said to have occurred at Onondaga Lake near Syracuse, New York. The title Tadodaho is still used for the league's spiritual leader, the fiftieth chief, who sits with the Onondaga in council. He is the only one of the fifty to have been chosen by the entire Haudenosaunee people. The current Tadodaho is Sid Hill of the Onondaga Nation


In Reflections in Bullough's Pond, historian Diana Muir argues that the pre-contact Iroquois were an imperialist, expansionist culture whose use of the corn/beans/squash agricultural complex enabled them to support a large population that made war against Algonquian peoples. Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquois expansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption of agriculture. This enabled them to support populations of their own that were large enough to include a body of warriors to defend against the threat of Iroquois conquest.[19]

The Iroquois may be the Kwedech described in the oral legends of the Mi'kmaq nation of Eastern Canada. These legends relate that the Mi'kmaq in the late pre-contact period had gradually driven their enemies – the Kwedech – westward across New Brunswick, and finally out of the Lower St. Lawrence River region. The Mi'kmaq named the last-conquered land "Gespedeg" or "lost land," leading to the French word "Gaspé." The "Kwedech" are generally considered to have been Iroquois, specifically the Mohawk; their expulsion from Gaspé by the Mi'kmaq has been estimated as occurring ca. 1535-1600.[20] Around 1535, Jacques Cartier reported Iroquoian groups on Gaspé and along the St. Lawrence River, and Samuel de Champlain found Algonquian groups in the same locations in 1608 – but the exact tribal identity of any of these groups has been debated.

Iroquoian tribes were also well-known in the south by this time. From the time of the first English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia (1607), numerous 17th century accounts describe a powerful people known to the Powhatan Confederacy as the Massawomeck, and to the French as the Antouhonoron, who came from the north, beyond the Susquehannocks. These "Massawomeck" / "Antouhonoron" have often been identified with the Iroquois proper, but other Iroquoian candidates include the Erie tribe who were finally destroyed by the Iroquois in 1654.[21] It is certain that the Five Nations acquired political control of most of Virginia west of the fall line over the years 1670-1710, a region which they continued to claim until they began selling this area to their British allies in 1722.

Beaver Wars

Beginning in 1609, the League engaged in the Beaver Wars with the French and their Iroquoian-speaking Huron allies. They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast and what is now the boreal Canadian Shield region of Canada, and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well. During the seventeenth century, they were said to have exterminated the Neutral Nation.[24][25] and Erie Tribe to the west. The wars were a way to control the lucrative fur trade,[citation needed] although additional reasons are often given for these wars.

In 1628, the Mohawks defeated the Mahicans to gain a monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch at Fort Orange, New Netherland. The Mohawks would not allow Canadian Indians to trade with the Dutch. In 1645, a tentative peace was forged between the Iroquois and the Hurons, Algonquins and French. In 1646, Jesuit missionaries at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons went as envoys to the Mohawk lands to protect the fragile peace of the time. However, Mohawk attitudes toward the peace soured during the Jesuits' journey. They were attacked by a Mohawk party en route. Taken to the village of Ossernenon (Auriesville, N.Y.), the moderate Turtle and Wolf clans decreed setting the priests free. Angered by this, the more hawkish Bear clan killed Jean de Lalande and Isaac Jogues on October 18, 1646. The two French priests were later commemorated as among the eight North American Martyrs. In 1649 during the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois used recently purchased Dutch guns to attack the Hurons. From 1651 to 1652, the Iroquois attacked the Susquehannocks without success.

In the early seventeenth century, the Iroquois were at the height of their power, with a population of about twelve thousand people.[26] In 1654, they invited the French to establish a trading and missionary settlement at Onondaga (in present-day New York state). The following year, the Mohawk attacked and expelled the French from this trading post, possibly because of the sudden death of 500 Indians from an epidemic of smallpox, a European infectious disease to which they had no immunity.

From 1658 to 1663, the Iroquois were at war with the Susquehannock and their Delaware and Province of Maryland allies. In 1663, a large Iroquois invasion force was defeated at the Susquehannock main fort. In 1663, the Iroquois were at war with the Sokoki tribe of the upper Connecticut River. Smallpox struck again; and through the effects of disease, famine, and war, the Iroquois were threatened by extermination. In 1664, an Oneida party struck at allies of the Susquehannock on Chesapeake Bay.

In 1665, three of the Five Nations made peace with the French. The following year, the Canadian Governor sent the Carignan regiment under Marquis de Tracy to confront the Mohawks and the Oneida. The Mohawks avoided battle, and the French burned their villages and crops. In 1667, the remaining two Nations signed a peace treaty with the French. This treaty lasted for 17 years.

Around 1670, the Iroquois drove the Siouan Mannahoac tribe out of the northern Virginia Piedmont region. They began to claim ownership of it by right of conquest. In 1672, the Iroquois were defeated by a war party of Susquehannock. The Iroquois appealed to the French for support and asked Governor Frontenac to assist them against the Susquehannock because

"it would be a shame for him to allow his children to be crushed, as they saw themselves to be... they not having the means of going to attack their fort, which was very strong, nor even of defending themselves if the others came to attack them in their villages."

[27] Some old histories state that the Iroquois defeated the Susquehannock during this time period. As no record of a defeat has been found, historians have concluded that no defeat occurred.[27] In 1677, the Iroquois adopted the majority of the Susquehannock into their nation.[28]

By 1677, the Iroquois formed an alliance with the English through an agreement known as the Covenant Chain. Together, they battled to a standstill the French who were allied with the Huron. These Iroquoian people had been a traditional and historic foe of the Confederacy. The Iroquois colonized the northern shore of Lake Ontario and sent raiding parties westward all the way to Illinois Country. The tribes of Illinois were eventually defeated, not by the Iroquois, but rather by the Potawatomis. In 1684, the Iroquois invaded Virginian and Illinois territory again, and unsuccessfully attacked the French fort at St. Louis. Later that year, the Virginia Colony agreed at Albany to recognize the Iroquois' right to use the North-South path running east of the Blue Ridge (later the Old Carolina Road), provided they did not intrude on the English settlements east of the fall line.

In 1679, the Susquehannock, with Iroquois help, attacked Maryland's Piscataway and Mattawoman allies. Peace was not reached until 1685.

With support from the French, the Algonquian nations drove the Iroquois out of the territories north of Lake Erie and west of present-day Cleveland, regions which had been conquered during the Beaver Wars.[29]

Jacques-René de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville, Governor of New France from 1685 to 1689, set out for Fort Frontenac with a well-organized force. There they met with the 50 hereditary sachems of the Iroquois Confederation from the Onondaga council fire, who came under a flag of truce. Denonville recaptured the fort for New France and seized, chained, and shipped the 50 Iroquois Chiefs to Marseilles, France, to be used as galley slaves. He then ravaged the land of the Seneca. The destruction of the Seneca land infuriated the Iroquois Confederation.

On August 4, 1689, they burned to the ground Lachine, a small town adjacent to Montreal. Fifteen hundred Iroquois warriors had been harassing Montreal defenses for many months prior to that. They finally exhausted and defeated Denonville and his forces. His tenure was followed by the return of Frontenac, who succeeded Denonville as Governor for the next nine years (1689 –1698). Frontenac had been arranging a new plan of attack to lessen the effects of the Iroquois in North America and – realizing the danger of the imprisonment of the Sachems – he located the 13 surviving leaders and returned with them to New France that October 1698.

During King William's War (North American part of the War of the Grand Alliance), the Iroquois were allied with the English. In July 1701, they concluded the "Nanfan Treaty", deeding the English a large tract north of the Ohio River. The Iroquois claimed to have conquered this territory 80 years earlier. France did not recognize the validity of this treaty, as it had the strongest presence within the area in question. Meanwhile, the Iroquois were negotiating peace with the French; together they signed the Great Peace of Montreal that same year.

French and Indian Wars

After the 1701 peace treaty with the French, the Iroquois remained mostly neutral even though during Queen Anne's War (North American part of the War of the Spanish Succession) they were involved in some planned attacks against the French. Four delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy, the "Indian kings", traveled to London in 1710 to meet Queen Anne in an effort to seal an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.[30]

In the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the Tuscarora fled north from the British colonization of North Carolina and petitioned to become the sixth nation. This was a non-voting position but placed them under the protection of the Confederacy.

In 1721 and 1722, Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia concluded a new Treaty at Albany with the Iroquois, renewing the Covenant Chain and agreeing to recognize the Blue Ridge as the demarcation between Virginia Colony and the Iroquois. However, as white settlers began to move beyond the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley in the 1730s, the Iroquois objected and were told that the agreed demarcation merely prevented them from trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but it did not prevent English from expanding west of them. The Iroquois were on the verge of going to war with the Virginia Colony, when in 1743, Governor Gooch paid them the sum of 100 pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by the Iroquois. The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois sold Virginia all their remaining claims on the Shenandoah Valley for 200 pounds in gold.[31]

During the French and Indian War (North American part of the Seven Years' War), the Iroquois sided with the British against the French and their Algonquian allies, both traditional enemies of the Iroquois. The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war. In actuality, few Iroquois joined the campaign, and in the Battle of Lake George, a group of Mohawk and French ambushed a Mohawk-led British column. The British government issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the war, forbidding white settlements beyond the Appalachian Mountains, but this proclamation was largely ignored by the settlers, and the Iroquois agreed to adjust this line again at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768), whereby they sold the British Crown all their remaining claim to the lands between the Ohio and Tennessee River

American Revolution

During the American Revolution, many Tuscarora and the Oneida sided with the colonists, while the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga remained loyal to Great Britain, thereby marking the first major split among the Six Nations. Joseph Louis Cook offered his services to the United States and received a Congressional commission as a Lieutenant Colonel- the highest rank held by any Native American during the war.[32] However, after a series of successful operations against frontier settlements – led by the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant, other war chiefs, and British allies – the future United States reacted with vengeance. In 1779, George Washington ordered the Sullivan Campaign led by Col. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan against the Iroquois nations to "not merely overrun, but destroy," the British-Indian alliance.


After the war, the ancient central fireplace of the League was reestablished at Buffalo Creek. Captain Joseph Brant and a group of Iroquois left New York to settle in Canada. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River. Brant's crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: Brant's ford. By 1847, European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford, Ontario. The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city at a location still favorable for launching and landing canoes.


Melting pot

The Iroquois are a melting pot. League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through the "Mourning War" in raids intended to seize captives to replace lost compatriots and take vengeance on non-members. This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat.

The Iroquois aimed to create an empire by incorporating conquered peoples and remolding them into Iroquois and thus naturalizing them as full citizens of the tribe. Cadwallader Colden wrote "It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to save children and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation, and to educate them as their own children, without distinction; These young people soon forget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up the losses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war." By 1668, two-thirds of the Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. At Onondaga there were Native Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven.[33]


The Iroquois were a mix of farmers, fishers, gatherers, and hunters, though their main diet came from farming. The main crops they farmed were corn, beans and squash, which were called the three sisters and were considered special gifts from the Creator. These crops are grown strategically. The cornstalks grow, the bean plants climb the stalks, and the squash grow beneath, inhibiting weeds and keeping the soil moist under the shade of their broad leaves. In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades. The food was stored during the winter, and it lasts for two to three years. When the soil eventually lost its fertility, the Iroquois migrated.

Gathering was the job of the women and children. Wild roots, greens, berries and nuts were gathered in the summer. During spring, maple syrup was tapped from the trees, and herbs were gathered for medicine.

The Iroquois hunted mostly deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratory birds. Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter. Fishing was also a significant source of food because the Iroquois were located near a large river. They fished salmon, trout, bass, perch and whitefish. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winter fishing holes were made in the ice.[34


Since they had no writing system, the Iroquois depended upon the spoken word to pass down their history, traditions, and rituals. As an aid to memory, the Iroquois used shells and shell beads. The Europeans called the beads wampum, from wampumpeag, a word used by Indians in the area who spoke Algonquin languages.

The type of wampum most commonly used in historic times was bead wampum, cut from various seashells, ground and polished, and then bored through the center with a small hand drill. The purple and white beads, made from the shell of the quahog clam, were arranged on belts in designs representing events of significance.

Certain elders were designated to memorize the various events and treaty articles represented on the belts. These men could "read" the belts and reproduce their contents with great accuracy. The belts were stored at Onondaga, the capital of the confederacy, in the care of a designated wampum keeper.

Famous wampum belts of the Iroquois include the Hiawatha Wampum, which represents the (original) Five Nations, the spatial arrangement of their individual territories, and the nature of their roles in the Confederacy. The modern Iroquois flag is a rendition of the pattern of the original Hiawatha Wampum belt. The Two Row Wampum, also known as Guswhenta, depicts the agreement made between the Iroquois league and representatives of the Dutch government in 1613, an agreement upon which all subsequent Iroquois treaties with Europeans and Americans have been based. Today, replicas of the Two Row Wampum are often displayed for ceremonial or educational purposes. Other historical wampum belts representing specific agreements or historical occurrences are known to exist, although many have been lost or stolen.

Women in society

When Americans and Canadians of European descent began to study Iroquois customs in the 18th and 19th centuries, they observed that women assumed a position in Iroquois society roughly equal in power to that of the men. Individual women could hold property including dwellings, horses and farmed land, and their property before marriage stayed in their possession without being mixed with that of their husband's. The work of a woman's hands was hers to do with as she saw fit. A husband lived in the longhouse of his wife's family. A woman choosing to divorce a shiftless or otherwise unsatisfactory husband was able to ask him to leave the dwelling, taking any of his possessions with him. Women had responsibility for the children of the marriage, and children were educated by members of the mother's family. The clans were matrilineal, that is, clan ties were traced through the mother's line. If a couple separated, the woman kept the children. Violence against women by men was virtually unknown.[35]

The chief of a clan could be removed at any time by a council of the mothers of that clan, and the chief's sister was responsible for nominating his successor.[35]

Spiritual beliefs

Spirits animated all of nature and controlled the changing of the seasons. Key festivals coincided with the major events of the agricultural calendar, including a harvest festival of thanksgiving. The Great Peacemaker (Deganawida) was their prophet. After the arrival of the Europeans, many Iroquois became Christians, among them Kateri Tekakwitha, a young woman of Mohawk-Algonkin parents. Traditional religion was revived to some extent in the second half of the 18th century by the teachings of the Iroquois prophet Handsome Lake.[36]


The first five nations listed below formed the original Five Nations (listed from west to north); the Tuscarora became the sixth nation in 1720.

English name Iroquoian Meaning 17th/18th century location
Seneca Onondowahgah "People of the Great Hill" Seneca Lake and Genesee River
Cayuga Guyohkohnyoh "People of the Great Swamp" Cayuga Lake
Onondaga Onöñda'gega' "People of the Hills" Onondaga Lake
Oneida Onayotekaono "People of Standing Stone" Oneida Lake
Mohawk Kanien'kehá:ka "People of the Great Flint" Mohawk River
Tuscarora1 Ska-Ruh-Reh ""Hemp Gatherers"[37] From North Carolina²
1 Not one of the original Five Nations; joined 1720.

2 Settled between Oneidas and Onondagas.

Iroquois Five Nations c. 1650 Iroquois Six Nations c. 1720

Within each of the six nations, people are divided into a number of matrilineal clans. The number of clans varies by nation, currently from three to eight, with a total of nine different clan names.

Current clans
Seneca Cayuga Onondaga Tuscarora Oneida Mohawk
Wolf (Hoñnat‘haiioñ'n‘) Wolf Wolf Wolf (Θkwarì•nę) Wolf (Thayú:ni) Wolf (Okwáho)
Bear (Hodidjioiñi’'g’) Bear Bear Bear (Uhčíhręˀ) Bear (Ohkwá:li) Bear (Ohkwá:ri)
Turtle (Hadiniǎ‘'děñ‘) Turtle Turtle Turtle (Ráˀkwihs) Turtle (A'no:wál) Turtle (A'nó:wara)
Sandpiper (Hodi'ne`si'iu') Sandpiper Sandpiper Sandpiper (Tawístawis)
Deer (Hadinioñ'gwaiiu') Deer Deer
Beaver (Hodigěn’'gegā’) Beaver Beaver (Rakinęhá•ha•ˀ)
Heron Heron
Hawk Hawk
Eel Eel (Akunęhukwatíha•ˀ)

Prominent individuals

* Frederick Alexcee, artist (also of Tsimshian ancestry)
* Henry Armstrong, boxer, #2 in Ring Magazine's list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years
* George Armstrong, hockey player, most successful captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs with five Stanley Cup victories.
* Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea, Mohawk leader
* Cornplanter or Kaintwakon, Seneca chief
* Deganawida or The Great Peacemaker, the traditional founder along with Hiawatha of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy
* Graham Greene, Canadian Oneida
* Handsome Lake or Ganioda'yo, Seneca religious leader
* Ki Longfellow, novelist
* Oren Lyons, Onondaga, a traditional Faithkeeper of the Turtle clan
* Ely S. Parker, Seneca, Union Army officer during American Civil War, Commissioner of Indian Affairs during Ulysses S. Grant's first term as President.
* Red Jacket, Seneca orator and chief of the Wolf clan
* Robbie Robertson, Mohawk, songwriter, guitarist and singer best known for his membership in The Band.
* Joanne Shenandoah, Oneida singer, songwriter, actress and educator
* Jay Silverheels, actor, of Canadian Mohawk origin
* Kateri Tekakwitha, first Catholic Native American saint, patron of ecology, of Mohawk and Algonquin ancestry
* Canassatego, Tadadaho of the Iroquois Confederacy


Grand Council

The Grand Council of the Iroquois League is an assembly of 50 Hoyenah (chiefs) or Sachems, a number that has never changed. The seats on the Council are distributed among the Six Nations as follows:

* 14 Onondaga
* 10 Cayuga
* 9 Oneida
* 9 Mohawk
* 8 Seneca
* 0 Tuscarora

When anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan studied the Grand Council in the 19th century, he interpreted it as a central government. This interpretation became influential, but some scholars have since argued that while the Grand Council served an important ceremonial role, it was not a government in the sense that Morgan thought.[4][5][6] According to this view, Iroquois political and diplomatic decisions were made on the local level, and were based on assessments of community consensus; a central government that dictates policy to the people at large is not the Iroquois model of government.

Unanimity in public acts was essential to the Council. In 1855, Minnie Myrtle observed that no Iroquois treaty was binding unless it was ratified by 75% of the male voters and 75% of the mothers of the nation.[38] In revising Council laws and customs, a consent of two-thirds of the mothers was required.[38]

The women held real power, particularly the power to veto treaties or declarations of war.[38] The members of the Grand Council of Sachems were chosen by the mothers of each clan, and if any leader failed to comply with the wishes of the women of his tribe and the Great Law of Peace, he could be demoted by the mother of his clan, a process called "knocking off the horns" which removed the deer antlers emblem of leadership from his headgear and returned him to private life.[38][39] Councils of the mothers of each tribe were held separately from the men's councils. Men were employed by the women as runners to send word of their decisions to concerned parties, or a woman could appear at the men's council as an orator, presenting the view of the women. Women often took the initiative in suggesting legislation.[38]

The Iroquois government has issued passports since around 1980. Before 2001 these were accepted by various nations for international travel, but this is no longer the case[40]. The Iroquois Nationals lacrosse team was allowed by the U.S. to travel to an international lacrosse tournament in England after the personal intervention of Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on July 14, 2010. However, Her Majesty's government refused to recognize the Iroquois passports and denied the team members entry into the United Kingdom.[41]

Influence on the United States

The Iroquois Influence Thesis is one side of a currently debated argument about the influence on the development of the Articles of Confederation or United States Constitution.[42][43] The Influence Thesis became popular in the 1980s, particularly through publications by Donald Grinde and Bruce Johansen. According to these historians, the democratic ideals of the Great Law of Peace provided a significant inspiration to Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and other framers of the United States Constitution. [44] The popularity of the Influence Thesis culminated with the United States Congress passing a resolution in October 1988, specifically recognizing the influence of the Iroquois League upon the US Constitution and Bill of Rights.[45]

Opposition to the Influence Thesis comes from many scholars, including experts on the Iroquois and the US Constitution. According to historian Jack Rakove, "The voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late 1780s contain no significant references to the Iroquois."[46] Scholars of the Iroquois Confederacy who have rejected the Influence Thesis include William N. Fenton and Francis Jennings, who called it "absurd".[47] Anthropologist Dean Snow writes:

There is, however, little or no evidence that the framers of the Constitution sitting in Philadelphia drew much inspiration from the League. [48]

In support of the Influence Thesis are quotes from certain founding fathers. John Adams was quoted as saying:

The form of governments of the ancient Germans and the modern Indians; in both, the existence of the three divisions of power is marked with a precision that excludes all controversy. The democratical branch, especially, is so determined, that the real sovereignty resided in the body of the people, and was exercised in the assembly of king, nobles, and commons together. [49]

Benjamin Franklin also stated:

It would be a very strange thing, if six Nations of ignorant savages should be capable of forming a Scheme for such a Union … and yet that a like union should be impracticable for ten or a Dozen English Colonies. [50]

Modern communities

* Canada
o Kahnawake Mohawk in Quebec
o Kanesatake Mohawk in Quebec
o Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne in Ontario
o Thames Oneida in Ontario
o Six Nations of the Grand River Territory in Ontario
o Tyendinaga Mohawk in Ontario
o Wahta Mohawk in Ontario

* United States
o Cayuga Nation in New York
o Ganienkeh Mohawk — not federally recognized
o Kanatsiohareke Mohawk
o Onondaga Nation in New York
o Oneida Indian Nation in New York
o Oneida Tribe of Indians in Wisconsin
o St. Regis Band of Mohawk Indians in New York
o Seneca Nation of New York
o Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma
o Tuscarora Nation of New York

See also

* Covenant Chain
* David Cusick
* Economy of the Iroquois
* Ely S. Parker
* False Face Society
* Ganondagan State Historic Site
* Gideon Hawley
* Handsome Lake
* Hiawatha
* History of New York
* Iroquoian languages
* Iroquois mythology
* Iroquois Nationals
* Mohawk Chapel
* Red Jacket
* Sir William Johnson
* Six Nations of the Grand River
* Smoke Johnson
* Sullivan Expedition
* Town Destroyer
* The Kahnawake Iroquois and the Rebellions of 1837-38
* The Flying Head


1. ^ Haudenosaunee is pronounced /hɔːdɛnəˈʃɔːni/ in English, Akunęhsyę̀niˀ in Tuscarora (Rudes, B., Tuscarora English Dictionary, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), and Rotinonsionni in Mohawk.
2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee pg.135. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
3. ^ "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
4. ^ a b c Richter, "Ordeals of the Longhouse", in Richter and Merrill, eds., Beyond the Covenant Chain, 11–12.
5. ^ a b Fenton, Great Law and the Longhouse, 4–5.
6. ^ a b Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy, 72–73.
7. ^ Peck, William (1908). History of Rochester and Monroe county, New York. pp. 12. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
8. ^ "The Iroquois Confederacy". The Light Party. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
9. ^ The Iroquois. Google Books. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
10. ^ Jennings, p.43
11. ^ Hanna, The Wilderness Trail p. 97
12. ^ Louis F. Burns, "Osage" Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 2 March 2009
13. ^ Fenton, Great Law and the Longhouse, 69.
14. ^ Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy, 25.
15. ^ Johansen, Bruce (1995). "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy". Akwesasne Notes New Series 1 (3): 62–63. Retrieved Dec 12, 2008.
16. ^ Johansen, Bruce Elliott; Mann, Barbara Alice (2000). "Ganondagan". Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 105. ISBN 9780313308802. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
17. ^ Snow, The Iroquois, 231.
18. ^ The History of Onondage'ga'
19. ^ Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bullough's Pond, University Press of New England
20. ^ Bernard G. Hoffman, 1955, Souriquois, Etechemin, and Kwedech - - A Lost Chapter in American Ethnography
21. ^ James F. Pendergast, 1991, The Massawomeck.
22. ^ "From beads to banner". Indian Country Today. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
23. ^ "Haudenosaunee Flag". First Americans. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
24. ^ Reville, F. Douglas. The History of the County of Brant, p. 20.
25. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Hurons"
26. ^ Francis Parkman[citation needed]
27. ^ a b Jennings, p. 135
28. ^ Jennings, p.160
29. ^ Jennings, p. 111
30. ^ "The Four Indian Kings". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
31. ^ Joseph Solomon Walton, 1900, Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania p. 76-121.
32. ^ Oneida Nation of New York Conveyance of Lands Into Trust pg 3-159, Department of Indian Affairs
33. ^ Jennings, p. 95
34. ^ Bial, Raymond (1999). Lifeways: The Iroquois. New York: Benchmark Books. ISBN 0761408029.
35. ^ a b Wagner, Sally Roesch (1999). "Iroquois Women Inspire 19th Century Feminists". National NOW Times. National Organization for Women. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
36. ^ Wallace, Anthony (April 12, 1972). Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. Vintage. ISBN 978-0394716992.
37. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Iroquois
38. ^ a b c d e Wagner, Sally Roesch (1993). "The Iroquois Influence on Women's Rights". in Sakolsky, Ron; Koehnline, James. Gone To Croatan: Origins of North American Dropout Culture. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia. pp. 240–247. ISBN 0936756926. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
39. ^
40. ^
41. ^
42. ^ "The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth". Retrieved 2007-10-27.
43. ^ Armstrong, Virginia Irving. I Have Spoken: American History Through the Voices of the Indians. Pocket Books. p. 14. SBN 671-78555-9.
44. ^ Fadden, John Kahionhes. The Tree of Peace.
45. ^ "H. Con. Res. 331, October 21, 1988". United States Senate. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
46. ^ "Did the Founding Fathers Really Get Many of Their Ideas of Liberty from the Iroquois?". George Mason University. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
47. ^ Francis Jennings, Empire of fortune: crowns, colonies, and tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), p. 259 note 15.
48. ^ Snow, The Iroquois, 154.
49. ^ Adams, Charles Francis ed. A Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, in The Works of John Adams, vol.4, ed. Boston: 1851. (296)
50. ^ The Papers of Benjamin Franklin. vol. 4 (118-119)


* Fenton, William N. The Great Law and the Longhouse: a political history of the Iroquois Confederacy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0806130032.
* Jennings, Francis. The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: the Covenant Chain confederation of Indian tribes with English colonies from its beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744. New York: Norton, 1984. ISBN 0393017192.
* Jennings, Francis, ed. The History and culture of Iroquois diplomacy: an interdisciplinary guide to the treaties of the Six Nations and their league. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1985. ISBN 0815626509.
* Richter, Daniel K. The ordeal of the longhouse: the peoples of the Iroquois League in the era of European colonization. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0807820601.
* Richter, Daniel K., and James H. Merrell, eds. Beyond the covenant chain: the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian North America, 1600–1800. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. ISBN 027102299X.
* Shannon, Timothy J. Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier. New York: Viking, 2008. ISBN 9780670018970.
* Snow, Dean R. The Iroquois. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994. ISBN 1557862257.
* Tooker, Elisabeth, ed. An Iroquois source book. 3 volumes. New York: Garland, 1985–1986. ISBN 0824058771.

source :

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

Utah Jazz Information

 Utah Jazz Information
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Utah Jazz is a professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. They are currently members of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association (NBA). The franchise began in 1974 as the New Orleans Jazz, based in New Orleans, Louisiana, but the team moved to Utah in 1979 after just five seasons. The Jazz were one of the most unsuccessful teams in the league in their early years, and it would be 10 years before they made a playoff appearance (in 1984). They would not miss the playoffs again until 2004. During the late 1980s, John Stockton and Karl Malone arose as the franchise players for the team, and formed one of the most famed point guard–power forward duos in NBA history. Led by coach Jerry Sloan, who took over for Frank Layden in 1988, they became one of the powerhouse teams of the 1990s, culminating in two NBA Finals appearances in 1997 and 1998, where they lost both times to the Chicago Bulls, led by Michael Jordan. Both Stockton and Malone moved on in 2003. After missing the playoffs for three seasons the Jazz have returned to prominence under the on-court leadership of the franchise point guard Deron Williams. As of 2010, the Jazz are the only team in the Big Four sports leagues located in the state of Utah.

Franchise history
Early years in New Orleans

In 1974, the Jazz franchise began in New Orleans, Louisiana. The team's first major move was to trade for star player Pete Maravich from the Atlanta Hawks for two first-round draft picks, three second-round picks, and one third-round pick over the next three years.[1] Although he was considered one of the most entertaining players in the league and won the scoring championship in 1977 with 31.1 points per game, the record while in New Orleans was 39–43 in the 1977–78 season. Maravich struggled with knee injuries from that season onward.

Venue issues were a continual problem for the team while in New Orleans. In the Jazz's first season, when they played in the Loyola University Fieldhouse, the basketball court was raised so high that the players' association made the team put a net around the court so that players wouldn't fall off of the court and into the stands.[citation needed] Later, they played games in the Louisiana Superdome, but things were no better; due to high demand for the stadium, onerous lease terms and Maravich's constant knee problems. For instance, during the 1977–78 season, the Jazz were in the midst of a playoff drive when Mardi Gras festivities forced the team on a month-long road trip. Even if they had made the playoffs that year, they would have been forced to find another place to play in the event of a conflict.[1][2]

On their way out of the Big Easy, the Jazz were dealt one final humiliation when the Los Angeles Lakers selected Magic Johnson with the first overall pick in the 1979 NBA Draft. The pick would have belonged to the Jazz had they not traded it to Los Angeles to acquire Gail Goodrich.
1979–85: Move to Utah

By 1979, the Jazz were sinking under the weight of $5 million in losses over five years. Original owner Sam Battistone decided to move to Salt Lake City, even though it was a smaller market than New Orleans at the time. However, Salt Lake City had proven it could support a pro basketball team when it played host to the American Basketball Association's Utah Stars from 1970 to 1976. The Stars had been extremely popular in the city, but their financial picture inexplicably collapsed in their last two seasons, and they folded in December 1975 after playing only 16 games of the ABA's final season. Although Salt Lake City was not known for its jazz culture, the team decided to keep the name, as well as the team's original colors of green, purple and gold (the colors of Mardi Gras). Some were offended by the Jazz keeping the franchise name after moving from New Orleans, citing it as a metaphor for the theft of Jazz from its cultural roots.

The Jazz's attendance actually declined slightly after the team's move from New Orleans to Utah, due to a late approval for the move (June 1979) and poor marketing in the Salt Lake City area.[3][4] They continued to struggle for six seasons, in part due to a move to the tougher Midwest Division.
1985–90: Early Stockton and Malone era

In 1984, the Jazz drafted point guard John Stockton from Gonzaga University. In the next year the team added the second half of the NBA's greatest pairing in power forward Karl Malone from Louisiana Tech. In both the 1984–85 and 1985–86 seasons, the Jazz barely scraped into the playoffs. In 1986, the Jazz traded Adrian Dantley to Detroit. During the next few seasons, the Jazz began to establish themselves as a respectable team in their own right. Center Mark Eaton was, perhaps, one of the more notable defensive players of the era. Soon, Stockton and Malone became superstars, developing into a very effective combo, running pick-and-roll plays with great success. "Stockton to Malone" became a common phrase, as Stockton regularly found ways to pass the ball to Malone in good scoring position. Despite the regular season successes, however, the Jazz were never able to advance past the second round of the NBA Playoffs during the 1980s. During the 1988–89 season, Frank Layden stepped down as head coach to become president of the Utah Jazz. Assistant coach Jerry Sloan took over head coaching duties. Sloan guided the Jazz to their first 50-win season ever with a 51–31 record, also winning the Midwest Division. Once again, however, the Jazz fell in the postseason, losing to the Golden State Warriors in the first round for the second time in three years.

Throughout the early 1990s, the Jazz playoff woes continued, with the Jazz losing in the first round in 1990 to the Phoenix Suns and in the second round in 1991 to the Portland Trail Blazers. In 1990–91, the Jazz acquired Jeff Malone, and after the 1991–92 season they waived veteran Darrell Griffith. In 1991 the Jazz also moved out of the old Salt Palace and into the new Delta Center. In 1992, the Jazz finally made it to the conference finals, losing to the Portland Trail Blazers in six games. In 1993, the Jazz had a disappointing run in the playoffs again, losing to the Seattle SuperSonics in the first round. During the 1993–94 season, the Jazz traded Jeff Malone to the Philadelphia 76ers for shooting guard Jeff Hornacek, who provided high three-point and free throw shot percentage. The Jazz made the playoffs with a 53–29 record, shutting down NBA scoring leader David Robinson and San Antonio 3–1, then fought off a determined, upstart Denver Nuggets team 4–3 in the conference semi-finals (almost blowing a 3–0 series lead), and advanced to the conference finals, where they lost to the eventual NBA champion Houston Rockets 4–1.

In the 1994–95 season, the Jazz had significant depth and talent at their disposal and were expected to make a serious run for the championship. The Jazz finished with a 60–22 record during the regular season. Despite this, however, the Jazz lost to the Houston Rockets in the first round of the playoffs in five games. Big man Greg Ostertag was added to the team for the 1995–96 season, and the Jazz reached the conference finals for the third time in history, almost overcoming a 3–1 deficit and narrowly losing to the Seattle SuperSonics 4–3.
1996–98: The NBA Finals years

In the next two seasons, the Jazz were finally able to capitalize on their regular season success. In 1996–97, the Jazz had their best record in franchise history at 64–18, with such players as Stockton, Malone, Hornacek, Russell, Ostertag, Antoine Carr, Howard Eisley, and Shandon Anderson. They finally reached the NBA Finals for the first time ever after beating the Los Angeles Clippers 3–0, Los Angeles Lakers 4–1, and Houston Rockets 4–2 to meet Michael Jordan and the Chicago Bulls in the 1997 NBA Finals. A three-pointer at the buzzer by John Stockton in Game 6 of the 1997 Western Conference Championship sent the Jazz to the finals. This shot remains one of the highlight shots of the Jazz franchise. In the finals, the Jazz lost to the Bulls 4–2, after losing the last two in the final seconds of the games (90–88 and 87–86). Malone won the MVP for the regular season for the first time ever.

During the offseason, the Jazz made no significant changes to their roster. During the 1997–98 season, expectations were high for another championship run. However, Stockton suffered a serious knee injury before the season began and missed the first 18 games. Despite the setback, the Jazz were still able to finish at 62–20. In the playoffs they beat the Rockets 3–2, the Spurs 4–1, and the Los Angeles Lakers 4–0 to advance to their second NBA Finals appearance in a row. Utah, an aged core made up of veterans Stockton, Malone and Hornacek, were facing a Lakers squad composed of Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant, two young superstars of the NBA at the time. Though the Jazz were favored to beat the Lakers, since they owned home court advantage, there were doubters. Many[who?] felt the Lakers were far too talented and athletic and that the Jazz's age would show. Yet all thoughts of this were dispelled in game one, where the Jazz dominated the Lakers to a 112–77 victory. It was the worst playoff loss in franchise history for the Lakers and set the tone for the series. Though other games were far closer than what occurred in game one, Utah would go on to sweep the Lakers and return to the NBA Finals for the second straight year. In the 1998 NBA Championship, the Jazz took Game 1 at home 88–85. However, the Bulls overcame a slow start to win Game 2 93–88, easily took Game 3 96–54 and won a closer Game 4 86–82 to lead 3–1 in the series. The Jazz fought back to win Game 5 83–81 at the United Center and the series returned to Salt Lake City, where the Jazz had always been dominant. The Jazz held a lead in most of Game 6, but the Bulls rallied, and in the last seconds of the game, Michael Jordan made a controvorsial jump shot to win the game, 87–86. This loss highlighted the Jazz's struggles in the postseason, despite their overall, consistent success. Former referee Mike Mathis, an adamant critic of current NBA officiating, did not cite the supposed offensive foul on Jordan and stated it was the correct no-call in an article denouncing NBA officials following the Tim Donaghy incident.[5] The game was also controversial because of two incidents early in the game. In the second quarter Howard Eisley made a three-pointer, but the officials incorrectly ruled that the shot was taken after the shot clock expired.[citation needed] Later in the game, Ron Harper made a two-pointer after the shot clock expired, but this time the officials allowed it. Many Jazz fans[who?] also feel that these "phantom five" points also cost them the game, since the final margin was only one point.
1999–2003: Stockton and Malone's final years

In the 1999 season, shortened to 50 games due to a lockout, the Jazz finished the season 37–13, tied with the Spurs for the best record in the league. They defeated the Sacramento Kings in five games in the first round of the playoffs. However, they lost in the second round of the playoffs to the Portland Trail Blazers. Despite yet another disappointment, Malone was awarded his second MVP.

During the 1999–00 season, the Jazz finished 55–27 and won the Midwest Division but once again struggled in the postseason, losing to the Portland Trail Blazers, again during the second round. During the offseason, Hornacek retired and Howard Eisley was traded in a four-team deal that brought in Donyell Marshall. They selected promising high school basketball star DeShawn Stevenson in the first round of the NBA Draft. In the 2000–01 season, they went 53–29, but their playoff woes once again struck when they blew a 2–0 series lead in the first round of the playoffs to the Dallas Mavericks, a team that had not made the playoffs since 1990.

In the 2001–02 season, Andrei Kirilenko made his rookie debut, but overall the Jazz began to show their age and dwindling talent. The Jazz finished just 44–38 and lost to the Sacramento Kings 3–1 in the first round of the playoffs. In 2002–03, Marshall and Russell moved on to other teams. Matt Harpring, however, was brought over from the Philadelphia 76ers, contributing to the offense and experiencing his best season. The Jazz approached 50 wins going into the playoffs, ultimately going 47–35 and again losing to the Kings 4–1. After the season, the end of an era came when Stockton retired and Malone moved to the Lakers in the hunt for a championship ring with several other future Hall-of-Famers (The Lakers fell to Detroit in the Finals the following season, after which Malone retired).
2003–06: Rebuilding

In the 2003–04 season, the Jazz finished with a 42–40 record. The team featured several unheralded players who emerged into key contributors, including Kirilenko, Raja Bell, Matt Harpring, and Carlos Arroyo. In particular, Kirilenko demonstrated versatility on both offense and defense and earned a spot in the All-Star Game. Kirilenko helped the team late into the season's playoff hunt, in which the Jazz missed out by just one game to the Denver Nuggets, ending their streak of 20 consecutive seasons in the playoffs. Jerry Sloan finished second in the voting for the NBA Coach of the Year Award, losing to Hubie Brown of the Memphis Grizzlies.

In the 2004 offseason, the Jazz controversially obtained Carlos Boozer from the Cleveland Cavaliers. Free agent Mehmet Okur from the Detroit Pistons was signed, and Greg Ostertag left as a free agent to the Sacramento Kings. The franchise was again expected to contend in the West. The season began well for the Jazz, but a series of injuries, first to Arroyo and Raul Lopez, and later to Boozer and Kirilenko, caused the team to fall to the bottom of the division. There were rumors of internal discontent between the younger players and Sloan, leading to the trading away of Arroyo mid-season to the Detroit Pistons in exchange for Elden Campbell (who was immediately waived). They ended the 2004–05 season with a record of 26–56, their worst since the 1981–82 season.

In the summer of 2005, the Jazz continued to shape their roster by dispatching some of their underperforming young players and trading three draft picks in order to acquire the #3 pick overall, with which they selected point guard Deron Williams of the University of Illinois. Raja Bell left the team for the Phoenix Suns, the Jazz re-obtained Greg Ostertag from the Kings, and oft-injured point guard Raul Lopez was traded to the Memphis Grizzlies.

The 2005–06 season was injury-plagued before it even started; Boozer missed the first 49 games and Gordan Giricek and Kirilenko both missed significant time due to injuries. Okur and Kirilenko, however, showed consistently good play, while Williams, despite a midseason slump, did not disappoint. However, rumors of discontent between Jerry Sloan and the young players persisted, while team owner Larry Miller continually expressed his displeasure with the team's effort. They stayed in the playoff race until the third-to-last game, when they lost to the Dallas Mavericks. The Jazz ended the season 41–41 and just 3 games out of the playoffs. Ostertag retired at the end of the season, having spent 10 of his 11 seasons with the team.

In the 2006 NBA Draft, the Jazz selected promising University of Arkansas shooting guard Ronnie Brewer in the first round and in the second round selected point guard Dee Brown and power forward Paul Millsap. Several young players were traded away for Golden State Warriors guard Derek Fisher, giving them a veteran point guard. The Jazz were heralded by several major sports websites for drafting well and making good offseason moves.[6][7]
2006-2010: Williams and Boozer era

The Jazz developed a very deep and well-rounded team during the 2007 season. Carlos mostly avoided injuries (although missed his first All-Star game selection due to a minor leg injury) and Okur, who had developed a reputation as a great clutch shooter, was selected to the All-Star game as well (as an injury replacement). Deron Williams improved considerably, finishing third in the league in assists per game with 9.3 (behind Steve Nash and Chris Paul). The team also developed a deep bench; in the 10 games that Boozer and Okur (the two leading scorers) missed, the team went 8–2. Paul Millsap became one of the biggest surprise rookies of the year and became a competent backup to Boozer. Despite the elevated play of the Jazz's budding stars, Kirilenko showed a significant drop in his statistics and had struggles adapting to his reduced role. This eventually led to a well-publicized breakdown early in the first round of the playoffs. The Jazz clinched the playoffs as the #4 seed with a 51–31 record.

The Jazz went on to face the Houston Rockets in the first round. The series was a physical, close-fought one, with each of the first 6 games being won by the home team. The Jazz were able to break this trend in the 7th game,taking advantage of Tracy Mcgrady's injury and the Rocket's injury depleted bench, beating the Rockets 103–99 in Houston. The Jazz then went on to face the eighth-seeded Golden State Warriors, who were coming off a historic upset of the #1-seeded Dallas Mavericks (who had gone 67–15 in the regular season, one of the best in NBA history). However, the Jazz easily handled the Warriors, winning the series 4–1. The Jazz went on to face the San Antonio Spurs, fresh off a controversial victory over the Phoenix Suns, in the Western Conference Finals, but were eliminated from the playoffs 4–1.

During the offseason, the Jazz gained a hometown D-League affiliate in the Utah Flash (based in Orem), that they share with the Boston Celtics. During the offseason, the Jazz selected shooting guard Morris Almond in the first round, although ultimately they made few lineup changes. The most significant move was in letting Derek Fisher go. Fisher had also become a fan favorite due to his daughter's well-publicized battle with a rare form of eye cancer; he moved to Los Angeles during the offseason to be closer to better care for his daughter, and later signed with the Los Angeles Lakers, with whom he won three championships from 2000–2002. Offseason controversy arose after Kirilenko led his Russian national team to a win in EuroBasket 2007 (the European championship), a tournament in which he was named MVP. After this, Kirilenko posted on a blog that he wished to be traded from the Jazz and would be willing to walk away from his contract. He later reaffirmed this in interviews. However, no trade was made and he remained with the team into next season.

During the 2007–08 season, after a trade that sent disgruntled shooting guard Gordan Giricek to the Philadelphia 76ers in exchange for Kyle Korver, the Jazz ran off a record-tying 19-game home winning streak and improved on the road after a rough December. Despite the offseason controversy and trade talk, Kirilenko elevated his play, improving all stats from the previous season and seeming content with his new role more as a defender and a facilitator as opposed to a scorer. Carlos Boozer again won an All-Star selection, while Deron Williams continued to elevate his play, averaging 13.3 assists per game in March (as opposed to 10.5 for the season as a whole). The Jazz finished the regular season 5th best in the west with a 54–28 record. For the first time since the 97-98 season, the Jazz sold out every home game, and they possessed a phenomenal 37-4 home record; this was, however, offset by a subpar road record.

The Jazz once again became matched against the Houston Rockets in the first-round of the playoffs, this time as a #4 seed (although the Rockets possessed home-court advantage due to a better record). The Jazz jumped out to a quick 2-0 series lead in Houston, but lost the first game in Salt Lake City. After splitting the next two games, the Jazz dealt the Rockets a 113-91 blowout victory in game 6, placing them into a second-round matchup with the #1 seed Los Angeles Lakers. It was the first time these two franchises had competed in a post-season series since the 1998 Western Conference Finals. Four individuals from that series were present in this one: Laker players Kobe Bryant and Derek Fisher, and Utah head coach Jerry Sloan and assistant coach Phil Johnson. Conversely, it was also the first playoff series meeting between Coach Sloan, and Lakers' Head Coach Phil Jackson since the Chicago Bulls defeated the Jazz in the NBA Finals that same year, 4 games to 2. Utah lost game 1 and game 2 in Los Angeles. However the Jazz held up their great home winning record by defeating Los Angeles in Games 3 and 4. The Jazz lost game 5 in L.A. and were eventually eliminated in Game 6. The Jazz made no major offseason moves during 2008.

The 2008–09 season was tough for the Jazz as they struggled with consistent injuries that continually disrupted the chemistry of the team, and although they were once again nearly unstoppable at home, they also once again possessed a poor road record. Utah's top three players all missed significant times due to sickness or injuries; Deron Williams missed 13 of the first 15 games, Carlos Boozer missed more than half of the season, and Mehmet Okur missed sporadic time due to both injuries and his father's sickness that forced him to travel to his native Turkey early in the season. On February 20, 2009, Jazz owner Larry H. Miller died of complications from diabetes. During his final months as team owner, his family, led by his son Greg Miller, ran the day-to-day business operations of the Jazz. The Jazz finished with a 48–34 record, causing them to slip to #8 in the competitive Western Conference playoff race, after which they were eliminated by the Los Angeles Lakers for the second year in a row, 4 games to 1. The season would be the last for long-time radio and former TV announcer Hot Rod Hundley, who announced his retirement after being with the Jazz for their entire history (35 years). Despite the disappointment, Deron Williams proved himself to be one of the elite point guards of the league, averaging 19.4 points and 10.8 assists per game, second in the league, despite playing the entire season with a lingering ankle injury and also helping lead the U.S. Olympic basketball team to the gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics as part of the Redeem Team.

During the 2009 offseason, Carlos Boozer, Mehmet Okur, and Kyle Korver all possessed clauses for the final year of their contract in which they could choose to opt out and seek a bigger deal - however, all 3 of them chose to "opt-in" and serve the final year of their contracts in Utah. In July, Okur signed a 2-year contract extension worth $21 million, keeping him with Utah through the 2011-12 season. However, despite Boozer's decision to not opt-out, Boozer asked for a trade after learning that the Jazz verbally expressed more interest in keeping Paul Millsap and was actively looking to trade him. Millsap, a restricted free agent, signed an offer sheet from the Portland Trail Blazers but Utah exercised their right to match the offer and signed Millsap.

In the 2009 NBA Draft, the Jazz selected point guard Eric Maynor #20 overall to back up Deron Williams. Veteran Matt Harpring retired, citing consistent injuries sustained from his physical playing style. They also added rookie shooting guard Wesley Matthews to the lineup after an impressive camp. After struggling to a 19-17 start, the Jazz went 34-12 the rest of the way, despite trades that sent Maynor and the contract of the retired Matt Harpring to the Oklahoma City Thunder and sending starting shooting guard Ronnie Brewer to the Memphis Grizzlies midseason, a trade which was openly criticized by Deron Williams.[8] The trade for Brewer cleared the way for the undrafted rookie Matthews to take over the starting spot. Deron Williams was selected to play in the All-Star Game for the first time, and after a controversial offseason, Carlos Boozer had one of his best seasons and missed only 4 games to injuries. He even suggested that he would be happy to stay with Utah long-term.[9] After returning from an early season injury, Kyle Korver set the NBA record for three-point field goal percentage in a season.[10] In a tight Western Conference, the Jazz finished the season 53-29 and lost the division in a tiebreaker with the Denver Nuggets, ending with the #5 seed, matched up with the Nuggets in the first round of the playoffs. Kirilenko, who had missed 13 of the last 15 games of the regular season due to a nagging calf muscle strain, re-aggravated the injury the day before the first game of the playoffs and is expected to miss the entire first round, while Mehmet Okur tore his Achilles tendon in the first game and will miss the entire playoffs. Despite losing out on the Northwest Division title race, the Jazz had the last laugh, defeating the Nuggets in six games. The Jazz were then were eliminated by the Los Angeles Lakers for the third year in a row, in a sweep 4 games to 0.
2010 : Changes to the Jazz Core

On June 15, 2010, the Jazz unveiled a new color scheme and logo which represented a return to the old 'music note' logo. The team will unveil new uniforms on August 16. [11]

During the 2010 NBA Draft, the Utah Jazz selected Gordon Hayward and Jeremy Evans.

On July 7th 2010, Carlos Boozer (being a free agent) signed a 5 year 80 million dollar contract with the Chicago Bulls.

On July 9th 2010, Kyle Korver (being a free agent) signed a 3 year 13 million dollar contract with the Chicago Bulls were he will join Carlos Boozer who sign with the Bulls two days earlier.

On July 13, 2010, the Utah Jazz traded 2 future first round picks with the Minnesota Timberwolves for Forward/Center Al Jefferson.


Since the team's move from New Orleans to Salt Lake City in 1979, the Utah Jazz have worn several uniforms throughout their franchise history. From 1979-1996, the Jazz' home uniforms consisted of the "basketball forming J music note to write on Jazz" logo on the center chest, with purple numbers. The only modification to this uniform was the word "Utah" being added to the center chest logo in 1985. From 1979-1984, the Jazz' road uniforms were green, with the aforementioned Jazz logo on the center chest and gold numbers. For the 1984-85 season, the green road uniforms were changed to purple, with white trim added around the gold numbers. These uniforms were worn until the 1995-96 season.

For the 1996-97 season, the Jazz drastically updated their logos and uniforms, with a new color scheme of purple, copper and turquoise. Their new uniform featured a silhouette of the Wasatch Range on the center chest, with a stylish new Jazz script, and purple & turquoise details. On the road purple jersey, the white mountain range gradually fades to purple just above the numbers, which are white, with copper interior trim and teal outlining. On the home white jersey, the numbers are purple, with white interior trim and teal outlining. The Jazz wore these jerseys until the 2003-04 season.

The Jazz also introduced an alternate black jersey in the 1998-99 season, with the Jazz script on the center chest, but without the Wasatch Range silhouette. On this jersey, both the Jazz script and numbers are white, with purple interior trim and copper outlining, and copper side panels. These jerseys were worn until the 2003-04 season.

In the 2004-05 season, the Jazz once again updated their color scheme, logos and uniforms. The new color scheme, which the team used until the end of the 2009-10 season, consisted of navy blue, powder blue, silver & purple, though the latter color was only used on the primary logo and alternate logo. The team logo remained the same, for the exception of the new color variation. The new home uniform consisted of an updated "Jazz" script on the center chest in navy blue, with navy numbers, both of which had powder blue outlining. The new road uniform was navy blue, with a "Utah" script in powder blue on the center chest and powder blue numbers, both of which had silver outlining and white interior trim.

In the 2006-07 season, the Jazz introduced a new alternate powder blue uniform. This uniform features a Jazz script slightly different from the one of their home jersey and navy blue numbers below the script, also with silver and white trim. The nameplate on the back of the jersey was navy blue.

On June 15, 2010, the Utah Jazz unveiled a new logo and color scheme on the team's official website. For the 2010-11 season, the Jazz will revert to the team's original music note logo, with a new color scheme of navy, dark green, gold & gray. The team's new uniform set will be unveiled on August 16, 2010.[12]

Franchise leaders

* Career
o Games: John Stockton (1,504)
o Minutes Played: Karl Malone (53,479)
o Field Goals Made: Karl Malone (13,335)
o Field Goal Attempts: Karl Malone (25,810)
o 3-Point Field Goals Made: John Stockton (845)
o 3-Point Field Goal Attempts: John Stockton (2,203)
o Free Throws Made: Karl Malone (9,619)
o Free Throw Attempts: Karl Malone (12,963)
o Offensive Rebounds: Karl Malone (3,501)
o Defensive Rebounds: Karl Malone (11,100)
o Total Rebounds: Karl Malone (14,601)
o Assists**: John Stockton (15,806)
o Steals**: John Stockton (3,265)
o Blocked Shots: Mark Eaton (3,064)
o Turnovers: Karl Malone (4,421)
o Personal Fouls: Karl Malone (4,462)
o Points: Karl Malone (36,374)

* Per Game
o Minutes Played: Truck Robinson (43.35)
o Field Goals Made: Adrian Dantley (10.65)
o Field Goal Attempts: Pete Maravich (22.75)
o 3-Point Field Goals Made: Jeff Hornacek (0.92)
o 3-Point Field Goal Attempts: Bryon Russell (2.32)
o Free Throws Made: Adrian Dantley (8.27)
o Free Throw Attempts: Adrian Dantley (10.11)
o Offensive Rebounds: Truck Robinson (3.50)
o Defensive Rebounds: Truck Robinson (11.42)
o Total Rebounds: Truck Robinson (14.92)
o Assists: John Stockton (10.51)
o Steals: John Stockton (2.17)
o Blocked Shots: Mark Eaton (3.50)
o Turnovers: Pete Maravich (4.25)
o Personal Fouls: Danny Schayes (3.85)
o Points: Adrian Dantley (29.58)

* Per 48 Minutes
o Field Goals Made: Adrian Dantley (13.16)
o Field Goal Attempts: Pete Maravich (28.48)
o 3-Point Field Goals Made: Chris Morris (1.85)
o 3-Point Field Goal Attempts: Chris Morris (6.08)
o Free Throws Made: John Drew (10.97)
o Free Throw Attempts: John Drew (14.28)
o Offensive Rebounds: Ron Behagen (5.52)
o Defensive Rebounds: Truck Robinson (12.65)
o Total Rebounds: Rich Kelley (16.72)
o Assists: John Stockton (15.88)
o Steals: Carey Scurry (3.65)
o Blocked Shots: Mark Eaton (5.84)
o Turnovers: Jim Les (5.55)
o Personal Fouls: Eric Leckner (10.30)
o Points: John Drew (36.98)

** – Leads NBA


1. ^ a b Deseret News - Utah Jazz: Roots of Utah's team planted in New Orleans
2. ^ "Jazz Basketball Investors, Inc.". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
3. ^ "New Orleans Jazz – Year Five". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
4. ^ Blackwell, Dave. "Utah History Encyclopedia". State of Utah. Retrieved 2007-04-22.
5. ^ Former Nba Ref Blasts Officiating - New York Post
6. ^ Stein, Marc (2006-09-21). "Offseason review: Rating the West from Mavs to Griz". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
7. ^ Ventre, Michael. "NBA Offseason Report – Utah Jazz". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
8. ^ Utah Jazz: Deron Williams sad to say goodbye. Deseret Morning News. February 19, 2010.
9. ^ Utah Jazz: Boozer wants to say. Deseret Morning News. February 24, 2010.
10. ^ Utah Jazz: Kyle Korver sets NBA record for 3-point accuracy. Deseret Morning News. April 15, 2010.
11. ^ Jazz Unveils New Colors and Additional Logo. June 15, 2010.
12. ^ Jazz Unveils New Colors and Additional Logo
13. ^ Salt Lake Tribune October 20, 2009 Jazz sign 12-year agreement with FSN Utah

source :

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Lady Gaga Biography

Lady Gaga Biography
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lady Gaga (born Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta; March 28, 1986) is an American recording artist. She began performing in the rock music scene of New York City's Lower East Side in 2003 and enrolled at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts. She soon signed with Streamline Records, an imprint of Interscope Records. During her early time at Interscope, she worked as a songwriter for fellow label artists and captured the attention of Akon, who recognized her vocal abilities, and signed her to his own label, Kon Live Distribution.

Released on August 19, 2008, her debut album, The Fame, reached number one in the UK, Canada, Austria, Germany and Ireland, and reached the top-ten in numerous countries worldwide; in the United States, it peaked at two on the Billboard 200 chart and topped Billboard's Dance/Electronic Albums chart. Its first two singles, "Just Dance" and "Poker Face", co-written and co-produced with RedOne, became international number-one hits, topping the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States as well as the charts of other countries. The album later earned a total of six Grammy Award nominations and won awards for Best Electronic/Dance Album and Best Dance Recording. In early 2009 she embarked on her first headlining tour, The Fame Ball Tour. By the fourth quarter of the year, she had released her second studio album The Fame Monster, with the global chart-topping lead single "Bad Romance", as well as having embarked on her second headlining tour of the year, The Monster Ball Tour.

Lady Gaga is inspired by glam rock artists such as David Bowie and Queen, as well as pop musicians such as Madonna and Michael Jackson. She has also stated fashion is a source of inspiration for her songwriting and performances. Gaga was ranked the 73rd Artist of the 2000-10 decade by Billboard.[1] As of May 2010, Gaga has sold over 15 million albums and over 40 million singles worldwide.[2] In May 2010, Time magazine included Gaga in its annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. In June 2010, Forbes listed Gaga fourth on its list of the 100 Most Powerful and Influential celebrities in the world; she is also ranked as the second most powerful musician in the world.[3][4]

Life and career
1986–2004: Early life

Stefani Germanotta was born on March 28, 1986, the eldest child of Joseph Germanotta, an Italian American internet entrepreneur, and Cynthia Bissett.[5][6] She learned to play piano from the age of four, went on to write her first piano ballad at 13 and began performing at open mike nights by age 14.[7] At the age of 11, Germanotta attended Convent of the Sacred Heart, a private Roman Catholic school on Manhattan's Upper East Side,[8][9] but has stressed that she does not come from a wealthy background, saying that her parents "both came from lower-class families, so we've worked for everything — my mother worked eight to eight out of the house, in telecommunications, and so did my father."[10] An avid thespian in high school musicals, Germanotta portrayed lead roles as Adelaide in Guys and Dolls and Philia in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum.[11] She described her academic life in high school as "very dedicated, very studious, very disciplined" but also "a bit insecure" as she told in an interview, "I used to get made fun of for being either too provocative or too eccentric, so I started to tone it down. I didn’t fit in, and I felt like a freak."[12][13] Acquaintances dispute that she did not fit in school. "She had a core group of friends; she was a good student. She liked boys a lot, but singing was No. 1," recalled a former high school classmate.[14] Referring to her "expressive, free spirit", Gaga told Elle magazine "I'm left-handed!"[15]

At age 17, Germanotta gained early admission to the New York University's Tisch School of the Arts on August 23, 2003 and lived in a NYU dorm on 11th Street. There she studied music and improved her songwriting skills by composing essays and analytical papers focusing on topics such as art, religion, social issues and politics.[7][16] Germanotta felt that she was more creative than some of her classmates. "Once you learn how to think about art, you can teach yourself," she said. By the second semester of her sophomore year, she withdrew from the school to focus on her musical career.[17] Her father agreed to pay her rent for a year, on the condition that she re-enroll for Tisch if she was unsuccessful. "I left my entire family, got the cheapest apartment I could find, and ate shit until somebody would listen," she said.[11]
2005–07: Career beginnings

Germanotta had initially signed with Def Jam Recordings at the age of 19, although she was dropped by the label after only three months.[18] Shortly after, her former management company introduced her to songwriter and producer RedOne, whom they also managed.[19] The first song she produced with RedOne was "Boys Boys Boys",[19] a mash-up inspired by Mötley Crüe's "Girls, Girls, Girls" and AC/DC's "T.N.T."[20] She moved into an apartment on the Lower East Side and recorded a couple of songs with hip-hop singer Grandmaster Melle Mel for an audio book accompanying the children's book The Portal in the Park by Cricket Casey.[21] She also started the Stefani Germanotta Band with some friends from NYU. They recorded an EP of their ballads at a studio underneath a liquor store in New Jersey, becoming a local fixture at the downtown Lower East Side club scene.[11] She began experimenting and taking drugs soon after, while performing at neo-burlesque shows.[8] Her father did not understand the reason behind her drug intake and could not look at her for several months.[8][20] Music producer Rob Fusari, who helped her write some of her earlier songs, compared her vocal style to that of Freddie Mercury. Fusari helped create the moniker Gaga, after the Queen song "Radio Ga Ga". Germanotta was in the process of trying to come up with a stage name when she received a text message from Fusari that read "Lady Gaga."[22] He explained,

"Every day, when Stef came to the studio, instead of saying hello, I would start singing 'Radio Ga Ga'. That was her entrance song. [Lady Gaga] was actually a glitch; I typed 'Radio Ga Ga' in a text and it did an autocorrect so somehow 'Radio' got changed to 'Lady'. She texted me back, "That's it." After that day, she was Lady Gaga. She’s like, "Don’t ever call me Stefani again."[22]

She was known thereafter as Lady Gaga.[20] The New York Post, however, has reported that this story is incorrect, and that the name resulted from a marketing meeting.[14]

Throughout 2007, Gaga collaborated with performance artist Lady Starlight, who helped create her onstage fashions.[23] The pair began playing gigs at downtown club venues like the Mercury Lounge, The Bitter End, and the Rockwood Music Hall, with their live performance art piece known as "Lady Gaga and the Starlight Revue."[24][25] Billed as "The Ultimate Pop Burlesque Rockshow", their act was a low-fi tribute to 1970s variety acts.[26][27] In August 2007, Gaga and Starlight were invited to play at the American Lollapalooza music festival.[28] The show was critically acclaimed, and their performance received positive reviews.[7][24] Having initially focused on avant-garde and electronic dance music, Gaga found her musical niche when she began to incorporate pop melodies and the vintage glam rock of David Bowie and Queen into her music.[29]

Fusari sent the songs he produced with Gaga to his friend, producer and record executive Vincent Herbert.[30] Herbert was quick to sign her to his label Streamline Records, an imprint of Interscope Records, upon its establishment in 2007.[31] She credited Herbert as the man who discovered her, adding "I really feel like we made pop history, and we're gonna keep going".[30] Having already served as an apprentice songwriter under an internship at Famous Music Publishing, which was later acquired by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Gaga subsequently struck a music publishing deal with Sony/ATV.[32] As a result, she was hired to write songs for Britney Spears and labelmates New Kids on the Block, Fergie, and the Pussycat Dolls.[32] While Gaga was writing at Interscope, singer-songwriter Akon recognized her vocal abilities when she sang a reference vocal for one of his tracks in studio.[33] He then convinced Interscope-Geffen-A&M Chairman and CEO Jimmy Iovine to form a joint deal by having her also sign with his own label Kon Live Distribution[18] and later called her his "franchise player."[34] Gaga continued her collaboration with RedOne in the studio for a week on her debut album,[32] spawning the future singles "Just Dance" and "Poker Face." She also joined the roster of Cherrytree Records, an Interscope imprint established by producer and songwriter Martin Kierszenbaum, after co-writing four songs with Kierszenbaum including the single "Eh, Eh (Nothing Else I Can Say)."[32]
2008–10: The Fame and The Fame Monster

By 2008, Gaga had relocated to Los Angeles, working closely with her record label to finalize her debut album The Fame.[20] She combined different genres on the album, "from Def Leppard drums and hand claps to metal drums on urban tracks".[18] The Fame received positive reviews from critics; according to the music review aggregation of Metacritic, it garnered an average score of 71/100.[35] The album peaked at number one in Austria, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Ireland, and the top-five in Australia and the United States.[36][37] Its lead single "Just Dance", topped the charts in six countries—Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and later received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Dance Recording.[38] The following single, "Poker Face", was an even greater success, reaching number-one in almost all major music markets in the world, including the United Kingdom and the United States.[39] It won the award for Best Dance Recording at the 52nd Grammy Awards, over nominations for Song of the Year and Record of the Year. The Fame was nominated for Album of the Year; it won the Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album.[40] Although her first concert tour happened as an opening act for fellow Interscope pop group, the reformed New Kids on the Block,[41] she ultimately headlined her own concert tour, The Fame Ball Tour, which began on March 2009.[42]

The cover of the annual "Hot 100" issue of Rolling Stone in May 2009 featured a semi-nude Gaga wearing only strategically placed plastic bubbles.[43][44] In the issue she discussed that while she was beginning her career in the New York club scene, she was romantically involved with a heavy metal drummer. She described their relationship and break-up, saying of it, "I was his Sandy, and he was my Danny [of Grease], and I just broke." He later became an inspiration behind some of the songs on The Fame.[44] She was nominated for a total of nine awards at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, winning the award for "Best New Artist", while her single "Paparazzi" won two awards for "Best Art Direction" and "Best Special Effects."[45] In October, Gaga received Billboard magazine's Rising Star of 2009 award.[46] She attended the Human Rights Campaign's "National Dinner" the same month, before marching in the National Equality March in Washington, D.C.[47][48] Gaga released The Fame Monster, a collection of eight songs that dealt with the darker side of fame as experienced by her over the course of 2008–2009, while travelling around the world and are expressed through a monster metaphor. Her second concert tour, The Monster Ball Tour, was announced in support of The Fame Monster and began in November 2009.[49] "Bad Romance" was released as the first single from the album and topped the charts in eighteen countries, while reaching the top-two in the United States, Australia and New Zealand.[50][51] "Speechless", a song from The Fame Monster, was performed at The 2009 Royal Variety Performance where Gaga met and sang for Queen Elizabeth II.[52]

Gaga was chosen as of one the "10 Most Fascinating People of 2009" by Barbara Walters during Walters' annual ABC News special. When interviewed by the journalist, the singer went to dismiss the claim that she is intersex as an urban legend, responding to a question on this issue by stating: "At first it was very strange and everyone sorta said, 'That's really quite a story!' But in a sense, I portray myself in a very androgynous way, and I love androgyny."[53] In January 2010, she was named chief creative officer for a line of imaging products for Polaroid, stating that she will create fashion, technology and photography products.[54] The second single from The Fame Monster, "Telephone", which features R&B singer Beyoncé, became her fourth UK number-one single, while reaching the top three in Australia, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Canada and the United States.[55] In March, Rob Fusari sued Gaga's production company Mermaid Music LLC, claiming that he was entitled to a 20% share of its earnings. Gaga's lawyer Charles Ortner described the agreement with Fusari as "unlawful" and declined to comment.[56] In April, it was reported that her music videos gained over one billion viral views, becoming one of the first artists to reach this milestone.[57] Later that month, Gaga was named one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people of the year.[58] In May, in an interview with The Times, Gaga hinted at having Systemic lupus erythematosus, commonly referred to as lupus, which is a connective tissue disease.[2] In an interview with Larry King, Gaga confirmed that she does not have lupus but the results were borderline positive.[59]
2010–present: Upcoming third studio album

By March 2010, in an interview with MTV United Kingdom, Gaga stated that she had begun work on her new studio album and already finished writing the core theme of it.[60] Three months later, in a interview with Rolling Stone, she stated that her third studio album was finished, but it won't be released until early next year, probably in March or April 2011. She said: "It came so quickly. I've been working on it for months, and I feel very strongly that it's finished right now. Some artists take years. I don't. I write music every day.". She also stated that she's planning to announce the new album's title in the midnight of New Year's Eve, by inking to it permanently to her body.[61]

Musical style and influences

Gaga has been influenced by glam rock artists such as David Bowie and Queen,[62] as well as pop music artists such as Madonna, Britney Spears and Michael Jackson.[63][18][64] The Queen song "Radio Ga Ga" inspired her stage name, "Lady Gaga".[65][14] She commented: "I adored Freddie Mercury and Queen had a hit called 'Radio Gaga'. That's why I love the name [...] Freddie was unique – one of the biggest personalities in the whole of pop music."[64] Madonna told Rolling Stone that she sees "[her]self in Lady Gaga."[66] In response to the comparisons between herself and Madonna, Gaga stated: "I don't want to sound presumptuous, but I've made it my goal to revolutionise pop music. The last revolution was launched by Madonna 25 years ago."[64] Actress and singer Grace Jones was also cited as an inspiration.[67] She has also been likened to Blondie singer Debbie Harry.[68][69]

Gaga's vocals have drawn frequent comparison to those of Madonna and Gwen Stefani, while the structure of her music is said to echo classic 1980s pop and 1990s Europop.[70] While reviewing her debut album The Fame, The Sunday Times asserted "in combining music, fashion, art and technology, Lady GaGa evokes Madonna, Gwen Stefani circa 'Hollaback Girl', Kylie Minogue 2001 or Grace Jones right now."[71] Similarly, The Boston Globe critic Sarah Rodman commented that she draws "obvious inspirations from Madonna to Gwen Stefani... in [her] girlish but sturdy pipes and bubbly beats."[72] Though her lyrics are said to lack intellectual stimulation, "[she] does manage to get you moving and grooving at an almost effortless pace."[73] Music critic Simon Reynolds wrote that "Everything about Gaga came from electroclash, except the music, which wasn't particularly 1980s, just ruthlessly catchy noughties pop glazed with Auto-Tune and undergirded with R&B-ish beats.[74]

Gaga has stated that she is very much influenced by fashion and that it is everything to her.[8][17] She considers Donatella Versace her muse.[8] Gaga has her own creative production team called the Haus of Gaga, which she handles personally. The team creates many of her clothes, stage props, and hairdos.[75] Her love of fashion came from her mother, who she stated was "always very well kept and beautiful."[5] She said that: "When I'm writing music, I'm thinking about the clothes I want to wear on stage. It's all about everything altogether—performance art, pop performance art, fashion. For me, it's everything coming together and being a real story that will bring back the super-fan. I want to bring that back. I want the imagery to be so strong that fans will want to eat and taste and lick every part of us."[17] The Global Language Monitor named "Lady Gaga" as the Top Fashion Buzzword with her trademark "no pants" coming in at No. 3.[76] Entertainment Weekly put her outfits on its end of the decade "best-of" list, saying, "Whether it's a dress made of Muppets or strategically placed bubbles, Gaga's outré ensembles brought performance art into the mainstream."[77]

Critical reception of Gaga's music, fashion sense and persona are mixed. Her status as a role model, trailblazer and fashion icon is by turns affirmed and denied.[78][79][80][81] Gaga's albums have received mostly positive reviews,[35] with critics pointing out her unique place in pop music, the need for new movements in popular culture, the attention Gaga brings to important social issues, similar artists and the inherently subjective nature of her art.[82][83][84] Her role as a self-esteem booster for her fans is also lauded, as is her role in breathing life into the fashion industry.[85] Her performances are deemed as highly entertaining and innovative, with the blood-spurting performance of "Paparazzi" at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards listed as an eye-popping performance by MTV.[86] She continued such blood soaked performance at The Monster Ball Tour, where she wore a revealing leather corset and proceeded to be attacked by a man dressed in black who gnawed on her throat, causing blood to spurt down her chest and into her cleavage. She then lay dying in a pool of blood. However, during the shows at Manchester, the performance faced opposition from family groups and fans, in the light of a mass homicide event, after a local taxi driver slaughtered 12 people.[87] "It was extremely tasteless to see her pretend to be attacked in such a gory way. What happened in Bradford is very fresh in people's minds and given all the violence which happened in Cumbria just hours earlier, it was insensitive," said Lynn Costello of the organisation Mothers Against Violence.[88] Gaga's treatment of her fans as "Little Monsters" has inspired criticism, due to the highly commercial nature of her music and image.[79] To some, this dichotomy contravenes the concept of outsider culture. Writing for The Guardian, Kitty Empire stated that the dichotomy allegedly "allows the viewer to have a 'transgressive' experience without being required to think."

At (her performance's) core, though, is the idea that Gaga is at one with the freaks and outcasts. The Monster Ball is where we can all be free. This is arrant nonsense, as the scads of people buying Gaga's cunningly commercial music are not limited to the niche worlds of drag queens and hip nightcreatures from which she draws her inspiration. But Gaga seems sincere.[89]

Public image

Contrary to her subsequent outré style, the New York Post described her early look as like "a refugee from Jersey Shore" with "big black hair, heavy eye makeup and tight, revealing clothes."[14] Gaga is a natural brunette, however she bleached her hair blonde, because she was often mistaken for Amy Winehouse.[5] She often refers to her fans as her 'little monsters' and got a tattoo with that inscription as a tribute.[90] She has another six known tattoos, among them a peace symbol, which was inspired by John Lennon who she stated was her hero,[65] and a curling German script on her left arm which quotes the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, her favorite philosopher, commenting that his "philosophy of solitude" spoke to her:[91]

Toward the end of 2008, comparisons were made between the fashions of Lady Gaga and recording artist Christina Aguilera, noting similarities in their styling, hair, and make-up.[8] Aguilera later said she was "completely unaware of [Gaga]" and "didn't know if it [was] a man or a woman."[8] Gaga released a statement in which she welcomed the comparisons, due to the attention providing useful publicity, saying, "She's such a huge star and if anything I should send her flowers, because a lot of people in America didn't know who I was until that whole thing happened. It really put me on the map in a way."[92][93] Comparisons continued into 2010 when Christina released the music video of her single "Not Myself Tonight". Critics noted similarities between the song and its accompanying music video with Gaga's video for "Bad Romance".[94]

Gaga attributes much of her early success as a mainstream artist to her gay fans and is considered to be a rising gay icon.[95] Early in her career she had difficulty getting radio airplay, and stated, "The turning point for me was the gay community. I've got so many gay fans and they're so loyal to me and they really lifted me up. They'll always stand by me and I'll always stand by them. It's not an easy thing to create a fanbase."[96] She thanked FlyLife, a Manhattan-based LGBT marketing company with whom her label Interscope works, in the liner notes of her debut studio album, The Fame, saying, "I love you so much. You were the first heartbeat in this project, and your support and brilliance means the world to me. I will always fight for the gay community hand in hand with this incredible team."[97] One of her first televised performances was in May 2008 at the NewNowNext Awards, an awards show aired by the LGBT television network Logo, where she sang her song "Just Dance".[98] In June of the same year, she performed the song again at the San Francisco Pride event.[99] After The Fame was released, she revealed that the song "Poker Face" was about her bisexuality. In an interview with Rolling Stone, she spoke about how her boyfriends tended to react to her bisexuality, saying "The fact that I’m into women, they’re all intimidated by it. It makes them uncomfortable. They’re like, 'I don’t need to have a threesome. I’m happy with just you'."[44] When she appeared as a guest on The Ellen DeGeneres Show in May 2009, she praised DeGeneres for being "an inspiration for women and for the gay community".[100] She proclaimed that the October 11, 2009, National Equality March rally on the national mall was "the single most important event of her career." As she exited, she left with an exultant "Bless God and bless the gays,"[47] similar to her 2009 MTV Video Music Awards acceptance speech for Best New Artist a month earlier.[101] Gaga is the most popular living celebrity in terms of social networks. She has close to five million Twitter followers and ten million Facebook fans.[102]


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