Tuesday, October 16, 2007

The 2008 SLK280 Roadster


Dimensions
Exterior Dimensions
Wheelbase 95.7 in
Overall length 160.7 in
Overall height 51.0 in (top up)
Overall width 70.4 in
Front track 60.2 in
Rear track 61.0 in
Coefficient of drag 0.33 cd (top up)
Curb weight 3,255 lb (automatic) 3,215 lb (manual)
Interior Dimensions
Headroom 37.9 in
Legroom 42.5 in
Hiproom 54.6 in
Shoulder room 52.2 in
Cabin capacity TBA
Trunk capacity 9.8 cu ft (top up), 6.5 cu ft (top down

Honda CBR600F4



Engine specifications
Engine type - 20 valve DOHC, 4-cyl. in line
Displacement - 599cc
Bore x Stroke - 67x42,5 mm
Compression ratio - 12:1
Max. power - 110 bhp at 12.500 rpm
Max. Torque - 67 nm at 10.500 rpm
Transmission type - 6 speed constant mesh
Carburation - 4 36,5 mm Keihin CV Downdraft
Exhaust - 4-2-2
Chassis specifications
Frame type - Aluminium Frame
Overall length - n.a.
Overall width - n.a.
Overall height - n.a.
Seat height - 810 mm
Wheel base - 1.395 mm
Ground clearance - n.a.
Dry weight - 170 kg
Front suspension - 43 mm telescope fully adjustable
Rear suspension - Braced swinging arm fully adjustable
Front wheel / tyre - 17x3,50" / 120/70 ZR17
Rear wheel / tyre - 17x5,50" / 180/55 ZR17
Front brake - Dual 296 mm disc, 4-piston calipers
Rear brake - Single 220 mm disc, 2-piston caliper

The 2008 GL550 SUV



Engine and Drivetrain
Engine 5,461-cc DOHC 32-valve V-8. Aluminum alloy cylinder block.
Net power 382 hp @ 6,000 rpm
Net torque 391 lb-ft @ 2,800 — 4,800 rpm
Compression ratio 10.7:1
Fuel requirement
Premium unleaded gasoline.
Fuel tank (capacity - reserve) 26.4 gal - 3.4 gal
Fuel and ignition system Sequential multipoint electronic fuel injection and single-spark ignition. 2-stage resonance intake manifold.
Transmission Standard driver-adaptive 7-speed automatic with column shifter. Electronically controlled shifting. The column shifter provides convenient selection of Park, Reverse, Neutral, and Drive. Steering-wheel-mounted shift buttons allow for Touch Shift gear selection. Touch Shift with fingertip shift controls allows driver to manually downshift and allow upshifts in Drive, via rocker buttons behind the upper steering-wheel spokes. Driver-adaptive programming adjusts shift points to the driver's current driving style. Selecting off-road driving program raises shift points automatically. Shift into Optimum Gear programming allows one-touch selection of the best gear for maximum acceleration or engine braking by holding a Touch Shift button in the downshift position for one second. Driver-selectable Comfort mode starts vehicle moving in 2nd gear or 2nd Reverse gear, and upshifts at lower rpm to help improve control on slippery surfaces.
Drive configuration 4-wheel drive, with 50/50 front/rear torque split.
Front and rear axle ratios 3.7:1
Off-road driving program One-button off-road program allows driver to simultaneously engage programming recalibrations of the traction system, antilock brakes, engine management, and automatic transmission designed to enhance control in conditions typical of off-highway driving.1
Downhill Speed Regulation (DSR) Driver-activated DSR automatically modulates the throttle, brakes, and ABS to maintain a preset crawl speed when descending hills. Speed is preprogrammed at 4 mph but may be adjusted between 3 mph and 10 mph via the multifunction steering wheel. DSR can be used when the gear selector is in Drive or Reverse. Driver can override DSR by pressing the accelerator or switching DSR off via its console-mounted switch.
Hill-start assist To help prevent unwanted vehicle rollback when taking off from a stop on uphill or downhill grades (15 percent or over), hill-start assist automatically maintains brake pressure for approximately one second after the driver releases the brake pedal. The system is automatically deactivated when the vehicle is level, the gear selector is in Park or Neutral, or the parking brake is set.
1. Off-road driving should only be attempted by drivers with the necessary skill, experience and understanding of the vehicle's limits.
* MSRP includes $775 transportation and handling charge and excludes all taxes, title/documentary fees, registration, tags, Mercedes-Benz Dealer prep, labor and installation charges, insurance, optional equipment and accessories, certificate of compliance or non-compliance fees, and finance charges. Actual prices may vary by dealer.
All illustrations and specifications contained in this website are based on the latest product information available at the time of posting. Mercedes-Benz reserves the right to make changes at any time, without notice, in colors, materials, equipment, specifications, and models. Any variations in colors shown are due to variations in monitor resolution. Illustrations may include test situations. Some vehicles may be shown with non-U.S. equipment.

Bird Flu Virus Can Infect Fetus


The deadly H5N1 bird flu virus can pass through the placenta of pregnant women and into the fetus, Chinese scientists report.
They also discovered that the virus infects organs other than lungs in adults.
The researchers, from Peking University in Beijing, analyzed tissue samples taken from two people -- a man and a pregnant women -- killed by bird flu, to determine how the virus affects different body organs.
They detected H5N1 genetic material and antigens in the lungs, certain cells in the trachea, the T-cells of the lymph node, neurons in the brain, and in cells of the placenta. They also found H5N1 genetic material in the intestinal mucosa but did not find any antigens there.
The dead woman's fetus had H5N1 genetic material and antigens in the lungs, circulating cells of the immune system, and in cells of the liver.
The findings are published in this week's issue of The Lancet medical journal.
"This study has shown the capacity for human vertical transmission of the H5N1 virus" and this "warrants careful investigation, since maternal infections with common human influenza virus are generally thought not to infect the fetus," the researchers wrote.
This and the finding that H5N1 spreads beyond the lungs in adults "are important in the clinical, pathological and epidemiological investigation of human H5N1 infection, and have implications for public health and health care providers."

Yamaha YZF R6



Engine specifications
Engine type - 20 valve DOHC, 4-cyl. in line
Displacement - 599cc
Bore x Stroke - 65,5x44,5 mm
Compression ratio - 12,4:1
Max. power - 120 bhp at 13.000 rpm
Max. Torque - 68,1 nm at 11.500 rpm
Transmission type - 6 speed constant mesh
Carburation - 4 37 mm Keihin CV Downdraft
Exhaust - 4-2-1
Chassis specifications
Frame type - Aluminium Deltabox II
Overall length - 2.057 mm
Overall width - 701 mm
Overall height - 1.122 mm
Seat height - 833 mm
Wheel base - 1.381 mm
Ground clearance - 137 mm
Dry weight - 169 kg
Front suspension - 43 mm telescope
Rear suspension - Braced swinging arm
Front wheel / tyre - n.a. / 120/60 ZR17
Rear wheel / tyre - n.a. / 180/55 ZR17
Front brake - Dual 298 mm disc, 4-piston calipers
Rear brake - Single 220 mm disc, 2-piston caliper
Copyright © 1997-1999 B. GabriĆ«lse

Hepatitis B


1. What is Hepatitis
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It is usually caused by viral infections, toxic agents or drugs but may be an autoimmune response. It is characterised by jaundice, abdominal pain, liver enlargement and sometimes fever. It may be mild, or can be acute leading to fulminant hepatitis Others, usually viral or alcoholic are chronic, and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
The different types of VIRAL hepatitis are A (formerly called infectious hepatitis), B (serum hepatitis), C ( formerly called non-A, non-B hepatitis), D (delta hepatitis), E (a virus transmitted through the faeces of an infected person), F, G, cryptogenic (Caused by a virus as yet unidentified).
More hepatitis viruses are being discovered, but may be less common. Other viruses, such as Yellow Fever, Epstien Barr (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) as well as parasites and bacteria, can cause hepatitis as a secondary effect.
Many chemicals are damaging to the liver, as are drugs. The most famous drug which can do damage to the liver (if taken in excess) is acetaminophen (paracetamol).
Other types of hepatitis are: Autoimmune, Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, and alcoholic hepatitis.
The various forms of viral hepatitis are caused by different and distinct viruses. Although within each virus there are various strains and mutant viruses. But as they are different treatment, symptoms and prognosis may vary, for further information on A, C, D, E, F and G please consult other sources.
2. What is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus, the virus is very common in Asia, China, Philippines, China, Africa and the Middle east. In Europe and North America the incidence of known carriers is about 1 in a 1000 people. It is estimated that there are 280 million carriers world-wide representing more than 5% of the global population.
2.1 How is Hepatitis B Transmitted
Hepatitis B (HB) is transmitted by the exchange of body fluids e.g. Blood, Semen, Breast Milk and in some circumstances saliva. People most at risk include: Anybody who has unprotected sexual intercourse; IV drug users who share needles and syringes; Health care workers in contact with potentially contaminated blood or body fluids; Babies born to mothers with the virus; Anyone in intimate contact with the infected person. Many cases of acute hepatitis B occur sporadically with no known source and studies have shown that prior unrecognised infection is common.
2.2 What happens when infected with Hepatitis B



It is possible to be infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and experience no illness or symptoms whatsoever. Commonest is an acute attack of hepatitis during which you may feel unwell, tired and lose your appetite. Sometimes there is the characteristic yellowish colour of jaundice (Fig 1.) best seen in the whites of the eyes. This can last from a few days to a few months. Itching skin and pale stools may also occur. 90% of people infected with hepatitis B recover completely and become immune to the virus. Blood tests will show antibodies to hepatitis B indicating you have had hepatitis B but are now immune and cannot get hepatitis B again. However 10% of people infected with hepatitis B develop chronic infection, may have ongoing symptoms and they continue to be infectious for a variable length of time. Chronic infection is defined as having hepatitis B present for 6 months or more.
People with a chronic hepatitis infection are at risk of liver damage 20-30% of those will progress to cirrhosis.
2.3 How Can I prevent infection
i) Vaccination A safe and effective genetically engineered vaccine for hepatitis B is available. It is given in 3 subcutaneous injections (just under the skin) generally over a period of 6 months and conveys immunity in 90 to 95% of people treated. At the end of the course of injections a blood test is taken to see if you have developed the required antibodies. For the 5 - 10% of people who do not respond some new research has shown that a repeat course of injections given intramuscularly can create an immune response in between 62-98% (depending on several factors) of those who did not respond or whose response did not last when given subcutaneously.
Once vaccinated present it is important to be periodically tested to ensure that the body has sufficient levels of antibodies to prevent infection and a single booster dose may be required every 5 to 10 years to ensure immunity from infection.
At present vaccines are ineffective for those already infected with the hepatitis B virus.
New vaccines are being developed and some of these promise increased response rates, only require a single injection and some may be effective for people with chronic hepatitis B. However these are still in the research stage and not generally available.
ii) After exposure to the virus If an unvaccinated individual is exposed to the virus accidentally, hepatitis B Immune globulin can be given. Ideally within 24 hours of exposure and no later than 7 days after exposure, a repeat dose is necessary 28 - 30 days later. Hepatitis B Immune globulin is generally given where there is a known risk of infection, e.g. via needle stick injury or to new-born infants born to HBsAg positive mothers. In many cases hepatitis B Immune globulin can prevent initial infection with hepatitis B but there are also a significant number of cases where it has not prevented infection after exposure.
3. The hepatitis B virology and immunology
In order to understand what happens when a person is infected with hepatitis B it is helpful to know more about the virus. This section attempts to convey information about the hepatitis B virus, how it reproduces and the human bodies response to the virus. This one chapter could fill a text book, or more, and so the information is simplified.
3.1 What is the Hepatitis B Virus.
Hepatitis B is a DNA Virus of the hepadnaviridae family of viruses. It replicates within infected liver cells (hepatocytes ). The infectious ("Dane") particle consists of an inner core plus an outer surface coat.

In real life (Fig 3.) the virus is a spherical particle with a diameter of 42nm (1nm = 0.000000001 metres) and is composed as follows. There is an outer shell (or envelope) composed of several proteins known collectively as HBs or surface proteins (indicated by 's' in Fig 2.). This outer shell is frequently referred to as the surface coat. The outer surface coat surrounds an inner protein shell, composed of HBc protein (shown as 'c' in Fig 2). This inner shell is referred to as the core particle or capsid. Finally the core particle surrounds the viral DNA ('D') and an enzyme DNA Polymerase ('p').
3.2 How does the virus replicate.
When the virus enters the body of a new host it's initial response, if it's gets past the immune system, is to infect a liver cell. To do this the virus attaches to a liver cells membrane and the core particle enters the liver cell. The core particle then releases it's contents of DNA and DNA polymerase into the liver cell nucleus.
From within the cell nucleus the hepatitis B DNA causes the liver cell to produce, via messenger RNA; surface (HBs) proteins, the core (HBc) protein, DNA polymerase, the HBe protein, HBx protein and possibly other as yet undetected proteins and enzymes.
DNA polymerase causes the liver cell to make copies of hepatitis B DNA. I.e. it is believed that the replication of HBV DNA it does not go via RNA(?). Via the above process, versions of the hepatitis B virus are constructed by the liver cell . These copies of the virus and are released from the liver cell membrane into the blood stream and from there can infect other liver cells and thus replicate effectively. However when reproducing, mistakes may be made in copying viral DNA and this results in different strains and mutant strains of hepatitis B occurring.
The incubation of the Hepatitis B Virus (hepatitis B) is about 6 to 25 weeks (i.e. before physical and generally detectable histological or physical symptoms occur) however there are several biochemical and histological changes that occur in stages after infection with the hepatitis B virus.
3.3 Hepatitis B Antigens and Markers.
The various components produced by hepatitis B, while reproducing, are detailed below. Some of these components enter the blood stream and cause detectable changes, some may only be determined via liver biopsy and others require sophisticated, experimental or unreliable tests.
i) Hepatitis B DNA (HBV DNA) This is one of the first things that can be detected in the bloodstream after initial infection. It can be detected as soon as 1 week after infection using sensitive tests. It is believed that the level of HBV DNA may indicate how fast the virus is replicating(?). The test for HBV DNA is however expensive and difficult to perform, it is therefore not frequently used. Tests for HBV DNA are not performed as a standard test and generally only used as indicators of disease progression, suitability for therapy and research purposes.
ii) Hepatitis B DNA polymerase. (HBV DNA Polymerase, DNAp) This enzyme can be detected in the bloodstream soon after initial infection by hepatitis B at about the same time as HBV DNA. I.e. generally within a 1 week or so after infection. Tests for HBV DNA polymerase are not performed as a standard test and generally only used as indicators of disease progression, suitability for therapy and research purposes.
iii) Hepatitis B Core protein. (HBcAg) The core protein (HBc) is not detectable in the bloodstream, however it can be detected in the sample of liver cells taken after a liver biopsy. Generally the HBc proteins link together to form the hepatitis B core that encapsulate HBV DNA and DNA Polymerase.
iv) Hepatitis B Surface protein(s). (HBsAg) The outer surface coat composed of hepatitis B surface proteins is produced in larger quantities than required for the virus to reproduce. The excess surface proteins clump together into spherical particles of between 17-25nm in diameter but also form rods of variable length. In some cases these particles encapsulate a core particle and produce a complete, and infectious, virus particle that enters the blood stream and can infect other liver cells. The excess spheres, rods and also complete viral particles enter the blood stream in large numbers and are easily detectable. It does however take a while for these proteins to appear.
The incubation of the Hepatitis B Virus (hepatitis B) is between 6 to 25 weeks. After infection and 1 to 6 weeks before symptoms occur HBsAg appears. A positive test for the presence of hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg), is the standard currently taken to indicate current infection with hepatitis B. If HBsAg is present for more than 6 months this is generally taken to indicate chronic infection.
It is thought that excess HBs proteins produced may allow infectious viral particles to escape the immune system by mopping up any low levels of surface antibodies that may be produced by the immune system(?).
v) HBe Protein. (HBeAg or 'e' antigen) The Hepatitis 'e' antigen (HBeAg) is a peptide and normally detectable in the bloodstream when the hepatitis B virus is actively reproducing, this in turn leads to the person being much more infectious and at a greater risk of progression to liver disease. The exact function of this non structural protein is unknown, however it is thought that HBe may be influential in suppressing the immune systems response to HBV infection(?). HBeAg is generally detectable at the same time as HBsAg and disappears before HBsAg disappears. The presence of HBeAg in chronic infection is generally taken to indicate that HBV is actively reproducing and there is a higher probability of liver damage. In acute infection HBeAg is generally only transiently present.
However mutant strains of HBV exist that replicate without producing HBeAg. In many cases infection with these mutant strains is more aggressive than HBe producing strains(?).
vi) HBx Protein. The function of this protein is not yet known. Although it can be detected current tests are unreliable as other proteins interfere with the results(?).
3.4 How the Human Body Responds to Infection. This section details how the human body responds to an initial infection with hepatitis B. In people with immune suppression, undeveloped immune systems (I.e. infants and children), certain genetic traits or other as yet unknown factors these may not occur.
Round 90% of infected people will recover from Hepatitis B and around half of these will have had no symptoms. Recovery means that no HBsAg is found in the blood and the Hepatitis B Antibody (HBsAb) is present. HBsAb usually persists for life after recovery.
i) Antibodies to HBc (HBcAb). The first detectable antibody to appear around 8 weeks after infection with HBV are antibodies to the HBV core protein. These antibodies to HBcAg (HBcAb) do not neutralise the virus. HBcAb's persist in serum after an infection with HBV has been defeated and testing for this antibody has been used to detect previous exposure to the live virus.
ii) ALT alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferase). ALT and AST are enzymes produced in liver cells that can be detected in the blood stream. The normal range for ALT is between 0-40. When liver cells are damaged these enzymes are released and elevated levels are detected in serum. The value of ALT in the blood stream is generally taken to be an indicator of the damage that hepatitis causing to liver cells. However damage may be occurring with little or no elevation of ALT (this is especially true for hepatitis C and people with end stage liver disease).
ALT and AST and other substances are measured when a liver function test is taken. However other drugs and especially alcohol can elevate these readings artificially. It is therefore important to avoid these things before a liver function test and/or inform your doctor of any drugs you may be taking or have taken in weeks previous to the test. You may find it useful to keep a record of your ALT to track disease progression and the effects any treatments) you are taking is having.
After an initial infection and at around the same time as HBcAb appears in the blood stream the level of ALT starts to rise sharply. The rise in ALT is due to damage to the liver cells, one theory is that the damage to liver cells is not caused directly by the virus, i.e. the virus does not kill liver cells, but by the human bodies own immune system killing infected and surrounding cells. In patients with compromised immune systems and/or with HIV infection there is increased risk of the infection becoming chronic but damage done by the chronic infection appears mild in comparison to people not infected with HIV. In cases of acute infection ALT starts to drop at around the same time as when the 'e' antigen is no longer detectable and is down to normal when antibodies to the surface antigen appear.
iii) Interferon. When a human cell is exposed to a new virus it usually produces a group of substances known as interferons. It is believed that interferons modulate (alter) the immune system, alter cell membranes to reduce infection of surrounding uninfected cells and also causes many changes. This naturally produced interferon assists the body in fighting hepatitis B. However it was discovered that the interferon response was deficient in some people and also infants/ children with immature immune systems. This finding lead to interferon being considered as a treatment.
iv) Antibodies to HBe protein (HBeAb) Antibodies to the 'e' antigen (HBeAb) normally appears a few weeks after HBeAg is no longer detectable. The presence of HBeAb is generally taken to be a good sign and indicates a favourable prognosis.
v) Antibodies to HBs protein (HBsAb) These are generally the last antibodies to appear. HBsAb can neutralise the hepatitis B virus and there appearance taken as an indicator that an initial infection has been defeated.
HBsAb can also be induced to appear by vaccination and so provide protection against hepatitis B. However the immune response produced by vaccination may not be 100%. Although very rare, hepatitis B infection has occurred in vaccinated individuals. It is believed that this may be due to mutant virus strains that express different surface proteins to those used in the genetically engineered vaccine.

The 2008 SLR McLaren Roadster



Dimensions


Exterior Dimensions
Wheelbase 106.3 in
Overall length 183.3 in
Overall height 49.3 in (top up)
Overall width 75.1 in
Front track 64.5 in
Rear track 61.8 in
Coefficient of drag 0.38 cd (top up, AIRBRAKE at 10°)
Curb weight 4,023 lb
Interior Dimensions
Head room 36.1 in
Leg room 44.2 in
Shoulder room TBA
Cabin capacity TBA
Trunk capacity 7.2 cu ft

What Is Virus



In computers, a virus is a program or programming code that replicates by being copied or initiating its copying to another program, computer boot sector or document. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in a downloaded file, or be present on a diskette or CD. The immediate source of the e-mail note, downloaded file, or diskette you've received is usually unaware that it contains a virus. Some viruses wreak their effect as soon as their code is executed; other viruses lie dormant until circumstances cause their code to be executed by the computer. Some viruses are benign or playful in intent and effect ("Happy Birthday, Ludwig!") and some can be quite harmful, erasing data or causing your hard disk to require reformatting. A virus that replicates itself by resending itself as an e-mail attachment or as part of a network message is known as a worm


Generally, there are three main classes of viruses:
File infectors. Some file infector viruses attach themselves to program files, usually selected .COM or .EXE files. Some can infect any program for which execution is requested, including .SYS, .OVL, .PRG, and .MNU files. When the program is loaded, the virus is loaded as well. Other file infector viruses arrive as wholly-contained programs or scripts sent as an attachment to an e-mail note.


System or boot-record infectors. These viruses infect executable code found in certain system areas on a disk. They attach to the DOS boot sector on diskettes or the Masters Boot Recordon hard disks. A typical scenario (familiar to the author) is to receive a diskette from an innocent source that contains a boot disk virus. When your operating system is running, files on the diskette can be read without triggering the boot disk virus. However, if you leave the diskette in the drive, and then turn the computer off or reload the operating system, the computer will look first in your A drive, find the diskette with its boot disk virus, load it, and make it temporarily impossible to use your hard disk. (Allow several days for recovery.) This is why you should make sure you have a bootable floopy


Macro viruses. These are among the most common viruses, and they tend to do the least damage. Macro viruses infect your Microsoft Word application and typically insert unwanted words or phrases.


The best protection against a virus is to know the origin of each program or file you load into your computer or open from your e-mail program. Since this is difficult, you can buy anti virus that can screen e-mail attachments and also check all of your files periodically and remove any viruses that are found. From time to time, you may get an e-mail message warning of a new virus. Unless the warning is from a source you recognize, chances are good that the warning is a virus hoax


The computer virus, of course, gets its name from the biological virus. The word itself comes from a Latin word meaning slimy liquid or poison.

2008 Honda Accord Coupe

SPECIFICATION

Drivetrain: Front Wheel Drive
EPA Fuel Economy Est - City (MPG): 21 (Est)
EPA Fuel Economy Est - Hwy (MPG): 30 (Est)
Dead Weight Hitch - Max Trailer Wt. (lbs): - TBD -
Dead Weight Hitch - Max Tongue Wt. (lbs): - TBD -
Wt Distributing Hitch - Max Trailer Wt. (lbs): - TBD -
SAE Net Horsepower @ RPM: 190 @ 7000
Final Drive Axle Ratio (:1): 4.44
Cold Cranking Amps @ 0° F (Primary): - TBD -
Rear Wheel Material: Alloy
Capacity/Dimensions
Passenger Capacity: 5
Passenger Volume (ft³): 95.2
Front Wheel Size (in): 17 x 7.5
Rear Wheel Size (in): 17 x 7.5
Spare Wheel Size (in): - TBD -
Steering Type: Pwr rack & pinion
Steering Ratio (:1), Overall: 13.08
Front Brake Rotor Diam x Thickness (in): 11.1 x - TBD -
Rear Brake Rotor Diam x Thickness (in): 11.1 x - TBD -
Front Head Room (in): 39.1
Front Leg Room (in): 42.5
Front Shoulder Room (in): 58.4
Wheelbase (in): 107.9
Trunk Volume (ft³): 11.9
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